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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 53% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Núñez-Gil et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? PSM retrospective 6,217 patients in Spain Lower mortality with HCQ (p<0.000001) Núñez-Gil et al., Anti-Infective Agents, Sep 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Hydroxychloroquine and Mortality in SARS-Cov-2 Infection; The HOPE- Covid-19 Registry.

Núñez-Gil et al., Anti-Infective Agents, doi:10.2174/2211352520666220514112951
Sep 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
PSM retrospective 6,217 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with HCQ. The higher efficacy reported with obesity is consistent with the greater efficacy predicted for higher cholesterol Yuan.
risk of death, 53.0% lower, OR 0.47, p < 0.001, treatment 581, control 581, propensity score matching, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Núñez-Gil et al., 9 Sep 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 32 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
{ 'DOI': '10.2174/2211352520666220514112951', 'ISSN': ['2211-3525'], 'URL': '', 'abstract': '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title>Background:</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may be an effective, safe, and affordable treatment for ' 'Covid-19 that can be used in selected patients. However, more evidence on its association, ' 'when it is used in different stages of the disease, with clinical outcomes, is required. This ' 'observational study investigates the association between treatment with HCQ and mortality, in ' 'patients with Covid-19.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title>Methods:</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>The data from 6217 patients who died or were discharged from 24 Spanish hospitals, ' 'were analyzed. Propensity matching scores (PMS) were used.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title>Results:</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>5094 patients received HCQ. Death was recorded for 17.5% of those who had HCQ and ' '34.1% of those who did not have it. Mortality was lower for those who had HCQ, OR=0.41 (95% ' 'CI=0.34-0.48). The PMS analysis also showed that mortality was lower for those receiving ' 'HCQ, OR=0.47 (95%CI=0.36-0.62). PMS analysis for categories revealed an association between ' 'HCQ and lowered mortality for patients over 65 years of age, with a past medical history of ' 'hypertension, for those who were diagnosed during admission with sepsis related organ ' 'failure, or pneumonia, and for those with lymphocytopenia, raised troponin, LDH, ferritin and ' 'D-dimer. No increase in mortality associated with HCQ was observed in any category of any of ' 'the variables investigated.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec>\n' '<jats:title>Conclusions:</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>HCQ could be associated with lower mortality for older patients, those with more ' 'severe disease and raised inflammatory markers. Further RCTs, observational studies, and ' 'summaries of both types of evidence on this topic, are necessary to select the precise ' 'profile of patients that may benefit from HCQ.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>', 'alternative-id': ['LiveAll1'], 'author': [ { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ' 'Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San ' 'Carlos (IdISSC]. Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Núñez-Gil', 'given': 'Iván J.', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Centre of Primary Care and Public Health. Queen Mary University ' 'of London. UK | Carnarvon Medical Centre. Southend on Sea. UK'}], 'family': 'Ayerbe', 'given': 'Luis', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, Spain and ' 'Fundación IMAS. Madrid. Spain.'}], 'family': 'Fernandez-Pérez', 'given': 'Cristina', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ' 'Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San ' 'Carlos (IdISSC]. Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Estrada', 'given': 'Vicente', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario La Paz, Instituto de Investigación ' 'Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ], Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Eid', 'given': 'Charbel Maroun', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Universitario Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Arroyo-Espliguero', 'given': 'Ramón', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario Getafe, Madrid, Spain. Universidad ' 'Europea de Madrid. Spain.'}], 'family': 'Romero', 'given': 'Rodolfo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Unidad de Gestión Clínica Área del Corazón, Instituto de ' 'Investigación Biomédica de Málaga'}], 'family': 'Becerra-Muñoz', 'given': 'Víctor Manuel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. ' 'CIBER-CV.'}], 'family': 'Uribarri', 'given': 'Aitor', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Nuestra Señora de América, Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Feltes', 'given': 'Gisela', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': "The Second People\\'s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China"}], 'family': 'Trabattoni', 'given': 'Daniela', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Severo Ochoa, Leganés, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Molina', 'given': 'María', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Aguado', 'given': 'Marcos García', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Azienda ospedaliero-universitaria consorziale policlinico di ' 'Bari. Bari, Italy.'}], 'family': 'Pepe', 'given': 'Martino', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'San Luigi Gonzaga University Hospital, Rivoli, Turin. Italy.'}], 'family': 'Cerrato', 'given': 'Enrico', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': "The Second People\\'s Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China"}], 'family': 'Huang', 'given': 'Jia', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Virgen del Mar, Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Astrua', 'given': 'Thamar Capel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Instituto de Cardiología y Cirugía Cardiovascular; Havana, Cuba.'}], 'family': 'Alfonso', 'given': 'Emilio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital General del norte de Guayaquil IESS Los Ceibos. ' 'Guayaquil, Ecuador.'}], 'family': 'Castro-Mejía', 'given': 'Alex F.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario Álvaro Cunqueiro, Instituto de ' 'Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur. Vigo, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Raposeiras-Roubin', 'given': 'Sergio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Buzón', 'given': 'Luis', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares, ' 'Spain'}], 'family': 'Paeres', 'given': 'Carolina Espejo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico Universitario, Incliva, Universidad de ' 'Valencia, Valencia, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Mulet', 'given': 'Alba', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'University Hospital Joan XXIII. University Rovira Virgili. ' 'IISPV. Tarragona. Spain.'}], 'family': 'Lal-Trehan', 'given': 'Nisha', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, ' 'IMIB-Arrixaca, Universidad de Murcia, CIBERCV. Murcia, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Garcia-Vazquez', 'given': 'Elisa', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital IMED, Valencia, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Fabregat-Andres', 'given': 'Oscar', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'University Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.'}], 'family': 'Akin', 'given': 'Ibrahim', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Hospital San Giovanni Battista, Turin. Italy.'}], 'family': 'D´Ascenzo', 'given': 'Fabrizio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofia. San Sebastian de los ' 'Reyes.Madrid, Spain.'}], 'family': 'Gomez-Rosado', 'given': 'Paula', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [{'name': "Sant\\'Andrea Hospital, Vercelli. Italy."}], 'family': 'Ugo', 'given': 'Fabrizio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ' 'Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San ' 'Carlos (IdISSC]. Madrid, Spain. | Hospital Universitario de ' 'Santiago de Compostela, Spain and Fundación IMAS. Madrid. ' 'Spain.'}], 'family': 'Fernández-Ortiz', 'given': 'Antonio', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ' 'Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San ' 'Carlos (IdISSC]. Madrid, Spain. | Hospital Universitario de ' 'Santiago de Compostela, Spain and Fundación IMAS. Madrid. 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Late treatment
is less effective
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