Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 35% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Menardi et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 277 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.12) Menardi et al., PharmAdvances, September 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during the early phase of the pandemic

Menardi et al., PharmAdvances, doi:10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.15
Sep 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 277 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, not reaching statistical significance, and subject to confounding by indication. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 35.2% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.12, treatment 32 of 200 (16.0%), control 19 of 77 (24.7%), NNT 12.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Menardi et al., 30 Sep 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during the early phase of the pandemic
G Menardi, L Infante, V Del Bono, L Fenoglio, D Collotta, P Macagno, C Bedogni, M Rebora, C Fruttero, M Collino
Pharmadvances, doi:10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.15
COVID-19 is a complex, multi-organ systemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus whose pathophysiological basis and pharmacological approaches are still to be defined. Our study aims to retrospectively evaluate the role played by clinical and demographic variables as well as the specific therapies administered in COVID-19 patients admitted to a referral Hospital in Northern Italy (Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo) during the COVID-19 first epidemic wave. We analyzed data from 277 patients with virological diagnosis of COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital from February 20 th to April 30 th 2020. The inpatients' pharmacological treatments and clinical outcomes were assessed up to May 31 st 2020. Correlations between pharmacological treatments as well as clinical and demographic variables and clinical outcomes have been performed. Several drugs were used in different dosages and combinations. In the first weeks of the epidemic, the most widely used drugs were hydroxychloroquine and the antivirals lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/cobicistat, then replaced by corticosteroids and heparin derivatives. Supplementation with vitamin C, D, or polyvitamins exerted a slight, but not significant, increase in survival rate, mainly in patients over 65 years old. Results showed that age and comorbidities significantly affected the survival as shown by the Charlson Comorbidity Index which was significantly higher in patients who died than in those who survived, thus confirming that victims of the disease were mostly debilitated and elderly people. The most influencing COVID-19 survival factors here recorded were age and comorbidities. No statistically significant differences were detected among the different pharmacological treatments used in our clinical setting during the first epidemic wave. Impact statement No significant differences have been recorded in terms of efficacy among the several pharmacological approaches used during the first epidemic way in an Italian hub hospital.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that they have no confl ict of interests.
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study, Nutrients
Balasco, 'alessandro, Ferrara, Smaldone, Vitagliano, Analysis of the time evolution of COVID-19 lethality during the fi rst epidemic wave in Italy, Acta Biomed
Bertocchi, Foglietta, Collotta, The hidden role of NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity-related COVID-19 exacerbations: Lessons for drug repurposing, Br J Pharmacol
Boddu, Aurangabadkar, Kuchay, New onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes and COVID-19, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Bolzetta, Maselli, Formilan, Prophylactic or therapeutic doses of heparins for COVID-19 infection? A retrospective study, Aging Clin Exp Res
Cariou, Hadjadj, Wargny, Phenotypic characteristics and prognosis of inpatients with COVID-19 and diabetes: the CORONADO study, Diabetologia
Getachew, Tizabi, Vitamin D and COVID-19: Role of ACE2, age, gender, and ethnicity, J Med Virol
Holman, Knighton, Kar, Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Horby, Recovery, Group, Lim, Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Magliano, Harding, Cohen, Excess Risk of Dying From Infectious Causes in Those With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care
Mohamed, Gale, Kontopantelis, Sex Differences in Mortality Rates and Underlying Conditions for COVID-19 Deaths in England and Wales, Mayo Clin Proc
Nicoli, Solis-Soto, Paudel, Age-related decline of de novo T cell responsiveness as a cause of COVID-19 severity, Geroscience
Sanders, Monogue, Jodlowski, Cutrell, Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review, Jama
Schultze, Aschenbrenner, None, Cell
Scully, Haverfi Eld, Ursin, Tannenbaum, Klein, Considering how biological sex impacts immune responses and COVID-19 outcomes, Nat Rev Immunol
Singh, Ryan, Kredo, Chaplin, Fletcher, Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Su, Kuo, Wang, Chang, Gender based differences in COVID-19, New Microbes New Infect
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY, Nature
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop