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A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during the early phase of the pandemic

Menardi et al., PharmAdvances, doi:10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.15
Sep 2021  
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Mortality 35% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Menardi et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 277 patients in Italy Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.12) Menardi et al., PharmAdvances, September 2021 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
Retrospective 277 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, not reaching statistical significance, and subject to confounding by indication.
Although the 35% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 26% lower mortality [22‑30%] from meta analysis of the 249 mortality results to date.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 35.2% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.12, treatment 32 of 200 (16.0%), control 19 of 77 (24.7%), NNT 12.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Menardi et al., 30 Sep 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during the early phase of the pandemic
G Menardi, L Infante, V Del Bono, L Fenoglio, D Collotta, P Macagno, C Bedogni, M Rebora, C Fruttero, M Collino
Pharmadvances, doi:10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.15
COVID-19 is a complex, multi-organ systemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus whose pathophysiological basis and pharmacological approaches are still to be defined. Our study aims to retrospectively evaluate the role played by clinical and demographic variables as well as the specific therapies administered in COVID-19 patients admitted to a referral Hospital in Northern Italy (Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo) during the COVID-19 first epidemic wave. We analyzed data from 277 patients with virological diagnosis of COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital from February 20 th to April 30 th 2020. The inpatients' pharmacological treatments and clinical outcomes were assessed up to May 31 st 2020. Correlations between pharmacological treatments as well as clinical and demographic variables and clinical outcomes have been performed. Several drugs were used in different dosages and combinations. In the first weeks of the epidemic, the most widely used drugs were hydroxychloroquine and the antivirals lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/cobicistat, then replaced by corticosteroids and heparin derivatives. Supplementation with vitamin C, D, or polyvitamins exerted a slight, but not significant, increase in survival rate, mainly in patients over 65 years old. Results showed that age and comorbidities significantly affected the survival as shown by the Charlson Comorbidity Index which was significantly higher in patients who died than in those who survived, thus confirming that victims of the disease were mostly debilitated and elderly people. The most influencing COVID-19 survival factors here recorded were age and comorbidities. No statistically significant differences were detected among the different pharmacological treatments used in our clinical setting during the first epidemic wave. Impact statement No significant differences have been recorded in terms of efficacy among the several pharmacological approaches used during the first epidemic way in an Italian hub hospital.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that they have no confl ict of interests.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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