A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during the early phase of the pandemic
Menardi et al.
, A retrospective analysis on pharmacological approaches to COVID-19 patients in an Italian hub hospital during..
, PharmAdvances, doi:10.36118/pharmadvances.2021.15
Retrospective 277 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, not reaching statistical significance, and subject to confounding by indication
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
excessive unadjusted differences between groups; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication
risk of death, 35.2% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.12, treatment 32 of 200 (16.0%), control 19 of 77 (24.7%), NNT 12.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Menardi et al., 30 Sep 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
Abstract: ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Volume 3, issue 3, 2021: 577-85
A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS ON
PHARMACOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO COVID-19
PATIENTS IN AN ITALIAN HUB HOSPITAL DURING
THE EARLY PHASE OF THE PANDEMIC
G. Menardi1, L. Infante2, V. Del Bono3, L. Fenoglio4, D. Collotta1, P. Macagno5,
C. Bedogni5, M. Rebora5, C. Fruttero2, M. Collino6
Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
Hospital Pharmacy, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy
Division of Infection Disease, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy
Division of Internal Medicine, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy
General Manager, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo, Italy
Rita Levi-Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, University of Turin, Turin, Italy
COVID-19 is a complex, multi-organ systemic disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus whose pathophysiological
basis and pharmacological approaches are still to be defined. Our study aims to retrospectively evaluate the role played
by clinical and demographic variables as well as the specific therapies administered in COVID-19 patients admitted to
a referral Hospital in Northern Italy (Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo) during the COVID-19 first epidemic wave.
We analyzed data from 277 patients with virological diagnosis of COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital from
February 20th to April 30th 2020. The inpatients’ pharmacological treatments and clinical outcomes were assessed up
to May 31st 2020. Correlations between pharmacological treatments as well as clinical and demographic variables and
clinical outcomes have been performed.
Several drugs were used in different dosages and combinations. In the first weeks of the epidemic, the most widely
used drugs were hydroxychloroquine and the antivirals lopinavir/ritonavir and darunavir/cobicistat, then replaced by
corticosteroids and heparin derivatives. Supplementation with vitamin C, D, or polyvitamins exerted a slight, but not
significant, increase in survival rate, mainly in patients over 65 years old. Results showed that age and comorbidities
significantly affected the survival as shown by the Charlson Comorbidity Index which was significantly higher in patients
who died than in those who survived, thus confirming that victims of the disease were mostly debilitated and elderly
The most influencing COVID-19 survival factors here recorded were age and comorbidities. No statistically significant
differences were detected among the different pharmacological treatments used in our clinical setting during the first
No significant differences have been recorded in terms of
efficacy among the several pharmacological approaches
used during the first epidemic way in an Italian hub hospital.
COVID-19; Italian hub hospital; pharmacological
© 2021 The Italian Society of Pharmacology (SIF). Published by EDRA SPA. All rights reserved
G. MENARDI, L. INFANTE, V. DEL BONO, ET AL.
is less effective
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