Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 36% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Meeus et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ + AZ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 3,885 patients in Belgium (March - May 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ + AZ (p=0.005) c19hcq.org Meeus et al., New Microbes and New Inf.., Sep 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Efficacy and safety of in-hospital treatment of Covid-19 infection with low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in hospitalized patients: A retrospective controlled cohort study

Meeus et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172
Sep 2023  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 352 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Belgium and 3,533 control patients from the contemporaneous Belgian Collaborative Group, showing significantly lower mortality with HCQ treatment. The survival benefit was consistent in all age groups. No torsade de pointes or ventricular arrhythmias were observed. Mean time from onset is not provided, but 43% of patients with known onset were admitted within 5 days, making the efficacy consistent with expectations based on the treatment delay c19hcq.org.
HCQ 800mg day one, 200mg bid for five days, according to national guidelines. Authors note that the poor results in SOLIDARITY/RECOVERY may be related to the excessively high doses used. Most patients also received AZ. Adjusted results are only provided for all HCQ patients.
Publication was delayed over 3 years. Authors reported in 2001 that the paper had been rejected by the editors of four different journals, without peer review twitter.com.
risk of death, 36.5% lower, RR 0.64, p = 0.005, treatment 59 of 352 (16.8%), control 916 of 3,533 (25.9%), NNT 11, adjusted per study, MI model.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Meeus et al., 30 Sep 2023, retrospective, Belgium, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 16 March, 2020 - 20 May, 2020, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with AZ) - results of individual treatments may vary. Contact: gert.meeus@azgroeninge.be.
This PaperHCQAll
Efficacy and safety of in-hospital treatment of Covid-19 infection with low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in hospitalized patients: A retrospective controlled cohort study
M.D Gert Meeus, Frauke Van Coile, Ph.D Hans Pottel, M.D Ann-Sophie Michel, M.D Ortwin Vergauwen, Katy Verhelle, M.D Stoffel Lamote, M.D Mathias Leys, M.D Michaël Boudewijns, M.D Pieter Samaey
New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172
Objectives: In this study we evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment protocol with standard dose of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare the 28-day mortality rate in 352 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin (HCQ-group) in our hospital with a contemporary control group of 3533 patients receiving standard of care from the Belgian Collaborative Group on COVID-19 Hospital Surveillance. Results: All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the analysis. A statistically significant reduction in crude mortality rate at 28 days was observed in the HCQ-group compared to standard of care (16.8% vs 25.9%,p=0.001). Patients in the treatment group were on average younger (69,7 vs73,1 years, p=0,0002), were less likely to smoke or to have malignancy and more likely to be male. Patients in the treatment group were more likely to be obese, immunocompromised or to have arterial hypertension, liver disease and lung disease.. After adjustment for these variables the OR for mortality was 0.635 (95%CI 0.464-0.875). Patients who did not receive HCQ had a 57% higher risk of mortality. A survival benefit in the treatment group was consistent across all age groups. 13 patients discontinued treatment due to side effects (4 with QTc-prolongation>60msec (1.1%) and 9 because of gastro-intestinal symptoms (2.55%)). No episodes of ventricular arrhythmia or torsade de pointes were recorded during treatment. Conclusion: Treatment of COVID-19 using a combination of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin was safe and was associated with a statistically significant mortality benefit in the treatment of COVID-19 infection in hospitalized patients. Our findings do not support the current negative recommendations regarding this treatment.
References
Arshad, Kilgore, Chaudhry, Jacobsen, Wang et al., Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and combination in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, Int J Infect Dis
Ayerbe, Risco-Risco, Ayis, The association of treatment with hydroxychloroquine and hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, Intern Emerg Med
Bacharier, Guilbert, Mauger, Boehmer, Beigelman et al., Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Jama
Borba, Val, Sampaio, Alexandre, Melo et al., Chloroquine diphosphate in two different dosages as adjunctive therapy of hospitalized patients with severe respiratory syndrome in the context of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection: Preliminary safety results of a randomized, double-blinded, phase IIb clinical trial ( CloroCovid-19 Study ), JAMA Netw Open
Borba, Val, Sampaio, Alexandre, Melo et al., Effect of High vs Low Doses of Chloroquine Diphosphate as Adjunctive Therapy for Patients Hospitalized With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA Netw Open
Carlin, Ln, Greenwood, Coffey, Tools for Analyzing Multiple Imputed Datasets, The Stata Journal
Castelnuovo, Cs, Antinori, Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is associated with reduced mortality: Findings from the observational multicentre Italian CORIST study, European J Internal Medicine
Catteau, Dauby, Montourcy, Bottieau, Hautekiet et al., Low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy and mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19: a nationwide observational study of 8075 participants, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Chang, Yu, Chang, Galvin, Liu et al., Pulmonary sequelae in convalescent patients after severe acute respiratory syndrome: evaluation with thin-section CT, Radiology
Dubée, Roy, Vielle, Parot-Schinkel, Blanchet et al., Hydroxychloroquine in mild-to-moderate COVID-19: a placebo-controlled double blind trial, Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Fantini, Scala, Chahinian, Yahi, Structural and molecular modelling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Francone, Iafrate, Masci, Coco, Cilia et al., Chest CT score in COVID-19 patients: correlation with disease severity and short-term prognosis, Eur Radiol
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hoang, Meddeb et al., Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Gautret, Million, Jarrot, Natural history of COVID-19 and therapeutic options, Expert Rev Clin Immunol
Ge, Durham, Meyer, Xie, Thomas, Covariate-Adjusted Difference in Proportions from Clinical Trials Using Logistic Regression and Weighted Risk Differences, Drug information journal : DIJ / Drug Information Association
Gielen, Johnston, Edwards, Azithromycin induces anti-viral responses in bronchial epithelial cells, Eur Respir J
Horby, Mafham, Linsell, Bell, Staplin et al., Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial, medRxiv
Horby, Mafham, Linsell, Bell, Staplin et al., Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med
J O U R N A L P R E, None
J O U R N A L P R E, None
J O U R N A L P R E, None
Keyaerts, Vijgen, Maes, Neyts, Van Ranst, In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine, Biochem Biophys Res Commun
Lagier, Million, Cortaredona, Outcomes of 2011 COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients Treated with Hydroxychloroquine/Azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France, 2020 : A monocentric retrospective analysis, Ther Clin Risk Manag
Lagier, Million, Gautret, Colson, Cortaredona et al., Outcomes of 3,737 COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France: A retrospective analysis, Travel Med Infect Dis
Lammers, Brohet, Theunissen, Koster, Rood et al., Early hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine use reduces ICU admission in COVID-19 patients, International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lee, Mackenzie, Mcdonald, Tong, An observational cohort study of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for COVID-19: (Can't Get No) Satisfaction, Int J Infect Dis
Liu, Li, Zhang, Kwong, Li et al., Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Drug Des Devel Ther
Ly, Zanini, Laforge, Arlotto, Gentile et al., Pattern of SARS-CoV-2 infection among dependant elderly residents living in long-term care facilities in Marseille, France, March-June 2020, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lê, Peiffer-Smadja, Guedj, Néant, Mentré et al., Rationale of a loading dose initiation for hydroxychloroquine treatment in COVID-19 infection in the DisCoVeRy trial, J Antimicrob Chemother
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Cummings, Hardin et al., Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19, medRxiv
Mitjà, Corbacho-Monné, Ubals, Alemany, Suñer et al., A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine for Prevention of Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Pan, Peto, Henao-Restrepo, Preziosi, Sathiyamoorthy et al., Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 -Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results, N Engl J Med
Peters, Collard, Van Assen, Beudel, Bomers et al., Outcomes of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitals with and without standard treatment with (hydroxy)chloroquine, Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Schryver, Serck, Vinetti, Gérard, Low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy and lower mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: association does not mean causality, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Sciensano, Sciensano Interim clinical guidance for adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in Belgium
Simpson, Kay, Abbara, Bhalla, Chung et al., Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus Statement on Reporting Chest CT Findings Related to COVID-19. Endorsed by the Society of Thoracic Radiology, the American College of Radiology, and RSNA -Secondary Publication, J Thorac Imaging
Skipper, Pastick, Engen, Bangdiwala, Abassi et al., Hydroxychloroquine in Nonhospitalized Adults With Early COVID-19 : A Randomized Trial, Ann Intern Med
Sokhna, COVID-19 in Africa : What else?, New Microbes New Infect
Taccone, Vangoethem, Depauw, Wittebole, Blot et al., The role of organizational characteristics on the outcome of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU in Belgium, The Lancet Regional Health -Europe
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Yang, Liu et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172', 'ISSN': ['2052-2975'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172', 'alternative-id': ['S2052297523000914'], 'article-number': '101172', 'assertion': [ {'label': 'This article is maintained by', 'name': 'publisher', 'value': 'Elsevier'}, { 'label': 'Article Title', 'name': 'articletitle', 'value': 'Efficacy and safety of in-hospital treatment of Covid-19 infection with ' 'low-dose hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in hospitalized patients: A ' 'retrospective controlled cohort study'}, { 'label': 'Journal Title', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'value': 'New Microbes and New Infections'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version', 'name': 'articlelink', 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172'}, {'label': 'Content Type', 'name': 'content_type', 'value': 'article'}, { 'label': 'Copyright', 'name': 'copyright', 'value': '© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.'}], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0649-6372', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Meeus', 'given': 'Gert', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Van Coile', 'given': 'Frauke', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Pottel', 'given': 'Hans', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Michel', 'given': 'Ann-Sophie', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Vergauwen', 'given': 'Ortwin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Verhelle', 'given': 'Katy', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lamote', 'given': 'Stoffel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Leys', 'given': 'Mathias', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Boudewijns', 'given': 'Michaël', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Samaey', 'given': 'Pieter', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'New Microbes and New Infections', 'container-title-short': 'New Microbes and New Infections', 'content-domain': { 'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': [ 'clinicalkey.fr', 'clinicalkey.jp', 'clinicalkey.es', 'clinicalkey.com.au', 'clinicalkey.com', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 9, 30]], 'date-time': '2023-09-30T20:51:49Z', 'timestamp': 1696107109000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 2]], 'date-time': '2023-10-02T23:30:00Z', 'timestamp': 1696289400000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 3]], 'date-time': '2023-10-03T04:51:46Z', 'timestamp': 1696308706346}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 9]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 9, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-09-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1693526400000}}, { 'URL': 'http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 3, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 9, 4]], 'date-time': '2023-09-04T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1693785600000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S2052297523000914?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S2052297523000914?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'page': '101172', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 9]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2023, 9]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085', 'article-title': 'In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by ' 'chloroquine', 'author': 'Keyaerts', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '264', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Biochem Biophys Res Commun', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib1', 'volume': '323', 'year': '2004'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib2', 'unstructured': 'Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and ' 'chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus ' '(2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 302020. p. 269-271..'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'author': 'Yao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '732', 'issue': '15', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib3', 'volume': '71', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105960', 'article-title': 'Structural and molecular modelling studies reveal a new mechanism of ' 'action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection', 'author': 'Fantini', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib4', 'volume': '55', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.5582/bst.2020.01047', 'article-title': 'Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of ' 'COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies', 'author': 'Gao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '72', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Biosci Trends', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib5', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2015.13896', 'article-title': 'Early administration of azithromycin and prevention of severe lower ' 'respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with a history of ' 'such illnesses: a randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Bacharier', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2034', 'issue': '19', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib6', 'volume': '314', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1183/09031936.00095809', 'article-title': 'Azithromycin induces anti-viral responses in bronchial epithelial cells', 'author': 'Gielen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '646', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Eur Respir J', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib7', 'volume': '36', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results ' 'of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Gautret', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib8', 'volume': '56', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'Sciensano', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib9', 'series-title': 'Interim clinical guidance for adults with suspected or confirmed ' 'COVID-19 in Belgium', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'Borba', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib10', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: ' 'preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial', 'author': 'Horby', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib11', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106144', 'article-title': 'Low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy and mortality in hospitalised ' 'patients with COVID-19: a nationwide observational study of 8075 ' 'participants', 'author': 'Catteau', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib12', 'volume': '56', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/RTI.0000000000000524', 'article-title': 'Radiological society of north America expert consensus statement on ' 'reporting chest CT findings related to COVID-19. Endorsed by the ' 'society of thoracic radiology, the American college of radiology, and ' 'RSNA - secondary publication', 'author': 'Simpson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '219', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'J Thorac Imag', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib13', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1148/radiol.2363040958', 'article-title': 'Pulmonary sequelae in convalescent patients after severe acute ' 'respiratory syndrome: evaluation with thin-section CT', 'author': 'Chang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1067', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Radiology', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib14', 'volume': '236', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00330-020-07033-y', 'article-title': 'Chest CT score in COVID-19 patients: correlation with disease severity ' 'and short-term prognosis', 'author': 'Francone', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '6808', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Eur Radiol', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib15', 'volume': '30', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1177/009286151104500409', 'article-title': 'Covariate-adjusted difference in proportions from clinical trials using ' 'logistic regression and weighted risk differences', 'author': 'Ge', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '481', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Drug Inf J : DIJ / Drug Information Association.', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib16', 'volume': '45', 'year': '2011'}, { 'DOI': '10.1177/1536867X0300300302', 'article-title': 'Tools for analyzing multiple imputed datasets', 'author': 'Carlin', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '226', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'STATA J', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib17', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2003'}, { 'author': 'Magagnoli', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib18', 'series-title': 'Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans ' 'hospitalized with Covid-19', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857', 'article-title': 'Effect of high vs low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive ' 'therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a randomized clinical ' 'trial', 'author': 'Borba', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib19', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2022926', 'article-title': 'Effect of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with covid-19', 'author': 'Horby', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2030', 'issue': '21', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib20', 'volume': '383', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2023184', 'article-title': 'Repurposed antiviral drugs for covid-19 - interim WHO solidarity trial ' 'results', 'author': 'Pan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '497', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib21', 'volume': '384', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.2147/DDDT.S166893', 'article-title': 'Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are associated with reduced ' 'cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1685', 'journal-title': 'Drug Des Dev Ther', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib22', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.1460', 'article-title': 'Early hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine use reduces ICU admission ' 'in COVID-19 patients', 'author': 'Lammers', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '283', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib23', 'volume': '101', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101791', 'article-title': 'Outcomes of 3,737 COVID-19 patients treated with ' 'hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, ' 'France: a retrospective analysis', 'author': 'Lagier', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Trav Med Infect Dis', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib24', 'volume': '36', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099', 'article-title': 'Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and combination in ' 'patients hospitalized with COVID-19', 'author': 'Arshad', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '396', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib25', 'volume': '97', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11739-020-02505-x', 'article-title': 'The association of treatment with hydroxychloroquine and hospital ' 'mortality in COVID-19 patients', 'author': 'Ayerbe', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1501', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Intern Emerg Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib26', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejim.2020.08.019', 'article-title': 'Use of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalised COVID-19 patients is ' 'associated with reduced mortality: findings from the observational ' 'multicentre Italian CORIST study', 'author': 'Di Castelnuovo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '38', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Intern Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib27', 'volume': '82', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.2147/TCRM.S364022', 'article-title': 'Outcomes of 2011 COVID-19 hospitalized patients treated with ' 'hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in marseille, ' 'France, 2020 : a monocentric retrospective analysis', 'author': 'Lagier', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '603', 'journal-title': 'Therapeut Clin Risk Manag', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib28', 'volume': '18', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nmni.2022.100982', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 in Africa : what else?', 'author': 'Sokhna', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'New Microbes New Infect', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib29', 'volume': '47', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.004', 'article-title': 'Outcomes of persons with coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitals with and ' 'without standard treatment with (hydroxy)chloroquine', 'author': 'Peters', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '264', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infection', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib30', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/jac/dkaa191', 'article-title': 'Rationale of a loading dose initiation for hydroxychloroquine treatment ' 'in COVID-19 infection in the DisCoVeRy trial', 'author': 'Lê', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2376', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'J Antimicrob Chemother', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib31', 'volume': '75', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.095', 'article-title': 'An observational cohort study of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin ' "for COVID-19: (Can't Get No) Satisfaction", 'author': 'Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '216', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib32', 'volume': '98', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-4207', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in nonhospitalized adults with early COVID-19 : a ' 'randomized trial', 'author': 'Skipper', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '623', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib33', 'volume': '173', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2021801', 'article-title': 'A cluster-randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for prevention of ' 'covid-19', 'author': 'Mitjà', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '417', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib34', 'volume': '384', 'year': '2021'}, { 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in mild-to-moderate COVID-19: a placebo-controlled ' 'double blind trial', 'author': 'Dubée', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infection', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib35', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106254', 'article-title': 'Low-dose hydroxychloroquine therapy and lower mortality in hospitalized ' 'patients with COVID-19: association does not mean causality', 'author': 'De Schryver', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib36', 'volume': '57', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106219', 'article-title': 'Pattern of SARS-CoV-2 infection among dependant elderly residents ' 'living in long-term care facilities in Marseille, France, March–June ' '2020', 'author': 'Ly', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib37', 'volume': '56', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'The role of organizational characteristics on the outcome of COVID-19 ' 'patients admitted to the ICU in Belgium', 'author': 'Taccone', 'journal-title': 'The Lancet Regional Health - Eur.', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib38', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/1744666X.2021.1847640', 'article-title': 'Natural history of COVID-19 and therapeutic options', 'author': 'Gautret', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1159', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Expet Rev Clin Immunol', 'key': '10.1016/j.nmni.2023.101172_bib39', 'year': '2020'}], 'reference-count': 39, 'references-count': 39, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2052297523000914'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases', 'Microbiology'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Efficacy and safety of in-hospital treatment of Covid-19 infection with low-dose ' 'hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in hospitalized patients: A retrospective controlled cohort ' 'study', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit