Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Symp. case 2% Improvement Relative Risk Symp. case (b) 0% Symp. case (c) 5% Symp. case (d) 53% Case 51% Case (b) 50% Case (c) 52% Case (d) 70% HCQ  WHIP COVID-19  Prophylaxis  DB RCT Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 543 patients in the USA (April - December 2020) Trial underpowered to detect differences McKinnon et al., Int. J. Infectious Di.., Dec 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Safety and Tolerability of Hydroxychloroquine in healthcare workers and first responders for the prevention of COVID-19: WHIP COVID-19 Study

McKinnon et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.343, WHIP COVID-19, NCT04341441
Dec 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
HCQ prophylaxis RCT with 201 weekly HCQ patients, 197 daily HCQ patients, and 200 control patients, concluding the prophylaxis is safe. There were no grade 3 or 4 AEs, SAEs, ER visits, or hospitalizations. There was only 4 confirmed cases, 2 in the placebo arm and one in each HCQ arm. 60% of patients had exposure at baseline.
HCQ 400mg weekly or HCQ 200mg daily after a loading dose of 400mg on day 1.
risk of symptomatic case, 2.5% lower, RR 0.98, p = 1.00, treatment 2 of 365 (0.5%), control 1 of 178 (0.6%), NNT 7219, daily and weekly HCQ combined.
risk of symptomatic case, no change, RR 1.00, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 178 (0.6%), control 1 of 178 (0.6%), daily HCQ.
risk of symptomatic case, 4.8% lower, RR 0.95, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 187 (0.5%), control 1 of 178 (0.6%), NNT 3698, weekly HCQ.
risk of symptomatic case, 53.3% lower, RR 0.47, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 25 (0.0%), control 1 of 178 (0.6%), NNT 178, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), AD patients.
risk of case, 51.2% lower, RR 0.49, p = 0.60, treatment 2 of 365 (0.5%), control 2 of 178 (1.1%), NNT 174, daily and weekly HCQ combined.
risk of case, 50.0% lower, RR 0.50, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 178 (0.6%), control 2 of 178 (1.1%), NNT 178, daily HCQ.
risk of case, 52.4% lower, RR 0.48, p = 0.61, treatment 1 of 187 (0.5%), control 2 of 178 (1.1%), NNT 170, weekly HCQ.
risk of case, 69.5% lower, RR 0.30, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 25 (0.0%), control 2 of 178 (1.1%), NNT 89, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), AD patients.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
McKinnon et al., 23 Dec 2021, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, USA, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 7 April, 2020 - 15 December, 2020, trial NCT04341441 (history) (WHIP COVID-19).
This PaperHCQAll
Safety and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine in health care workers and first responders for the prevention of COVID-19: WHIP COVID-19 Study
MD, MSc John E Mckinnon, Dee Dee Wang, Marcus Zervos, Matt Saval, Laurie Marshall-Nightengale, Paul Kilgore, Pardeep Pabla, Ed Szandzik, Kathleen Maksimowicz-Mckinnon, Safety William W O'neill
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.343
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Bariola, Mccreary, Wadas, Kip, Marroquin et al., Impact of Bamlanivimab Monoclonal Antibody Treatment on Hospitalization and Mortality Among Nonhospitalized Adults With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection, Open forum infectious diseases
Boehmer, Kompaniyets, Lavery, Hsu, Ko et al., Association Between COVID-19 and Myocarditis Using Hospital-Based Administrative Data -United States, March 2020, MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Lofgren et al., A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19, The New England journal of medicine
Dev, Meena, Gupta, Gupta, Sankar, Risk factors and frequency of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care centre in India: a case-control study, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dinesh, Sujith, Preeta Kaur, Atiya4, Avijit et al., Hydroxychloroquine for SARS CoV2 Prophylaxis in Healthcare Workers -A Multicentric Cohort Study Assessing Effectiveness and Safety, Journal of The Association of Physicians of India
Douedi, Mararenko, Alshami, Al-Azzawi, Ajam et al., COVID-19 induced bradyarrhythmia and relative bradycardia: An overview, Journal of arrhythmia
Dronavalli, Lord, Alexander, Boonwaat, Pal et al., Effectiveness of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis in Influenza Outbreaks in Residential Aged Care, Journal of epidemiology and global health
Fram, Wang, Malette, Villablanca, Kang et al., Cardiac Complications Attributed to Hydroxychloroquine: A systematic review of the Literature Pre-COVID-19
Hiba, Chowers, Levi-Vinograd, Rubinovitch, Leibovici et al., Benefit of early treatment with oseltamivir in hospitalized patients with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1): retrospective cohort study, The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Huang, Wang, Li, Ren, Zhao et al., Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Inglot, Comparison of the antiviral activity in vitro of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Journal of General Virology
Keyaerts, Vijgen, Maes, Neyts, Ranst, In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ladapo, Mckinnon, Mccullough, Risch, Randomized Controlled Trials of Early Ambulatory Hydroxychloroquine in the Prevention of COVID-19 Infection, Hospitalization, and Death: Meta-Analysis, medRxiv
Liu, Cao, Xu, Wang, Zhang et al., Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Lofgren, Nicol, Bangdiwala, Pastick, Okafor et al., Safety of Hydroxychloroquine among Outpatient Clinical Trial Participants for COVID-19, medRxiv
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Cummings, Hardin et al., Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19, medRxiv
Mccullough, Alexander, Armstrong, Arvinte, Bain et al., Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19), Reviews in cardiovascular medicine
Mehra, Ruschitzka, Patel, Retraction-Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis, The Lancet
Million, Gautret, Colson, Roussel, Dubourg et al., Clinical Efficacy of Chloroquine derivatives in COVID-19 Infection: Comparative meta-analysis between the Big data and the real world, New Microbes and New Infections
Mitjà, Corbacho-Monné, Ubals, Alemany, Suñer et al., A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine for Prevention of Covid-19, The New England journal of medicine
Mittal, Mittal, Gupta, Kaushal, Chugh et al., Systematic review and metaanalysis of efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19, Journal of family medicine and primary care
Monti, Vertogen, Masini, Donati, Lilli et al., Hydroxychloroquine as Prophylaxis for COVID-19: A Review, Frontiers in pharmacology
Nabeh, Helaly, Menshawey, Menshawey, Nasser et al., Contemporary approach to understand and manage COVID-19-related arrhythmia. The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ), official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
Nguyen, Drew, Joshi, Guo, Ma et al., community: a prospective cohort study
Onohuean, Al-Kuraishy, Gareeb, Qusti, Alshammari et al., Covid-19 and development of heart failure: mystery and truth, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology
Pegu, Connell, Schmidt, Dell, Talana et al., Durability of mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants
Perricone, Triggianese, Bartoloni, Cafaro, Bonifacio et al., The anti-viral facet of anti-rheumatic drugs: Lessons from COVID-19, Journal of Autoimmunity
Rajasingham, Bangdiwala, Nicol, Skipper, Pastick et al., Hydroxychloroquine as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for Coronavirus Disease
Raoult, Lancet gate: a matter of fact or a matter of concern, New Microbes New Infect
Rojas-Serrano, Vázquez-Pérez, Venegas, Pérez-Kawabe, Pérez-Padilla, Hydroxychloroquine For Prophylaxis Of COVID-19 In Health Workers: A Randomized Clinical Trial, medRxiv
Rosenberg, Dufort, Udo, Wilberschied, Kumar et al., Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19
Seet, Quek, Ooi, Sengupta, Lakshminarasappa et al., Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: An open-label randomized trial, International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
Singh, Pandit, Mcarthur, Banerjee, Mossman, Evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants, Virology journal
Sinha, Balayla, Hydroxychloroquine and covid-19, Postgraduate Medical Journal
Skipper, Pastick, Engen, Bangdiwala, Abassi et al., Hydroxychloroquine in Nonhospitalized Adults With Early COVID-19 : A Randomized Trial, Annals of internal medicine
Taylor, Adams, Hufford, De La Torre, Winthrop et al., Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID-19, Nature reviews Immunology
Tenforde, Patel, Ginde, Douin, Talbot et al., Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines for Preventing Covid-19 Hospitalizations in the United States, Clinical infectious
Tregoning, Flight, Higham, Wang, Pierce, Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape, Nature reviews Immunology
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Yang, Liu et al., Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wang, Lin, Huang, Yu, Tsai et al., of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for, Interferon and Cytokine Research
Wang, Neill, Zervos, Mckinnon, Allard et al., Association Between Implementation of a Universal Face Mask Policy for Healthcare Workers in a Health Care System and SARS-CoV-2 Positivity Testing Rate in Healthcare Workers, J Occup Environ Med
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.343', 'ISSN': ['1201-9712'], 'URL': '', 'alternative-id': ['S1201971221012431'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'McKinnon', 'given': 'JE', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'DD', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zervos', 'given': 'M', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Saval', 'given': 'M', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Marshall-Nightengale', 'given': 'L', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Kilgore', 'given': 'P', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Pabla', 'given': 'P', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Szandzik', 'given': 'E', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Maksimowicz-McKinnon', 'given': 'K', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': "O'Neill", 'given': 'WW', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': ['International Journal of Infectious Diseases'], 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 23]], 'date-time': '2021-12-23T06:27:07Z', 'timestamp': 1640240827000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 23]], 'date-time': '2021-12-23T06:27:07Z', 'timestamp': 1640240827000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/100007278', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Henry Ford Health System'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000865', 'award': ['INV-018560'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation'}], 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 23]], 'date-time': '2021-12-23T07:02:59Z', 'timestamp': 1640242979561}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issn-type': [{'type': 'print', 'value': '1201-9712'}], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 1]], 'date-time': '2021-12-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1638316800000}}, { 'URL': '', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 16, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 12, 17]], 'date-time': '2021-12-17T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1639699200000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference-count': 0, 'references-count': 0, 'relation': {}, 'score': 1, 'short-container-title': ['International Journal of Infectious Diseases'], 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases', 'Microbiology (medical)', 'General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': [ 'Safety and Tolerability of Hydroxychloroquine in healthcare workers and first responders for ' 'the prevention of COVID-19: WHIP COVID-19 Study'], 'type': 'journal-article'}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop