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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 69% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Loucera et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 15,968 patients in Spain (January - November 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.0002) Loucera et al., Virology J., August 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments

Loucera et al., Virology Journal, doi:10.1186/s12985-023-02195-9 (date from preprint)
Aug 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 15,968 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with existing use of several medications including metformin, HCQ, azithromycin, aspirin, vitamin D, vitamin C, and budesonide. Since only hospitalized patients are included, results do not reflect different probabilities of hospitalization across treatments.
risk of death, 69.3% lower, HR 0.31, p < 0.001, treatment 320, control 15,648, Cox proportional hazards, day 30.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Loucera et al., 16 Aug 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 8 authors, study period January 2020 - November 2020.
This PaperHCQAll
Real-world evidence with a retrospective cohort of 15,968 Andalusian COVID-19 hospitalized patients suggests 21 new effective treatments and one drug that increases death risk
Carlos Loucera, Rosario Carmona, Marina Esteban-Medina, Gerrit Bostelmann, Dolores Muñoyerro-Muñiz, Román Villegas, María Peña-Chilet, Joaquin Dopazo
Despite the extensive vaccination campaigns in many countries, COVID-19 is still a major worldwide health problem because of its associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, finding efficient treatments as fast as possible is a pressing need. Drug repurposing constitutes a convenient alternative when the need for new drugs in an unexpected medical scenario is urgent, as is the case with COVID-19. Using data from a central registry of electronic health records (the Andalusian Population Health Database, BPS), the effect of prior consumption of drugs for other indications previous to the hospitalization with respect to patient survival was studied on a retrospective cohort of 15,968 individuals, comprising all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Andalusia between January and November 2020. Covariate-adjusted hazard ratios and analysis of lymphocyte progression curves support a significant association between consumption of 21 different drugs and better patient survival. Contrarily, one drug, furosemide, displayed a significant increase in patient mortality.
Supplementary Material Supplementary Table 1 . Data imported from BPS for each patient: code and definition of the variable. 2 . Log Hazard ratios obtained for the drugs tested, along with standard deviations (SDs), upper and lower coefficient intervals (CI), nominal and FDR-adjusted p-values. Also, Lymphocyte proliferation values (see Methods) along with standard deviations (SDs), upper and lower coefficient intervals (CI), nominal and FDR-adjusted p-values. The two last columns indicate the drugs used in the machine learning drug repurposing prediction study 10 and the significance of the prediction. Supplementary Table
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