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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Predictors of Mortality among Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 during the First Wave in India: A Multisite Case-Control Study

Krishnan et al., The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.22-0705
Apr 2023  
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Mortality 40% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Krishnan et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 2,431 patients in India (March 2020 - March 2021) Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.051) c19hcq.org Krishnan et al., The American J. Tropi.., Apr 2023 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19hcq.org
Case control study with 2,431 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, without statistical significance.
Study covers convalescent plasma and HCQ.
risk of death, 40.0% lower, OR 0.60, p = 0.05, treatment 603, control 1,828, adjusted per study, case control OR, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Krishnan et al., 5 Apr 2023, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, mean age 52.8, 48 authors, study period March 2020 - March 2021.
This PaperHCQAll
Predictors of Mortality among Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 during the First Wave in India: A Multisite Case-Control Study
Anand Krishnan, Rakesh Kumar, Ritvik Amarchand, Anant Mohan, Ravi Kant, Ankit Agarwal, Poorvi Kulshreshtha, Prasan Kumar Panda, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Neeraj Agarwal, Bijit Biswas, Rathish Nair, Naveet Wig, Rajesh Malhotra, Sushma Bhatnagar, Richa Aggarwal, Kapil Dev Soni, Nirupam Madan, Anjan Trikha, Pawan Tiwari, Angel Rajan Singh, Mukta Wyawahare, Venugopalan Gunasekaran, Dineshbabu Sekar, AIIMS, Jodhpur Sanjeev Misra, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Akhil Dhanesh Goel, Naveen Dutt, Deepak Kumar, Nitin M Nagarkar, Abhiruchi Galhotra, Atul Jindal, Utsav Raj, Ajoy Behera, Sabbah Siddiqui, Arun Kokane, Rajnish Joshi, Abhijit Pakhare, Farhan Farooque, Sai Pawan, Pradeep Deshmukh, Ranjan Solanki, Bharatsing Rathod, Vibha Dutta, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Sadananda Barik, Randeep Guleria
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.22-0705
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) has caused more than 6 million deaths globally. Understanding predictors of mortality will help in prioritizing patient care and preventive approaches. This was a multicentric, unmatched, hospital-based case-control study conducted in nine teaching hospitals in India. Cases were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients who died in the hospital during the period of study and controls were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients who were discharged from the same hospital after recovery. Cases were recruited sequentially from March 2020 until December-March 2021. All information regarding cases and controls was extracted retrospectively from the medical records of patients by trained physicians. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was done to assess the association between various predictor variables and deaths due to COVID-19. A total of 2,431 patients (1,137 cases and 1,294 controls) were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 52.8 years (SD: 16.5 years), and 32.1% were females. Breathlessness was the most common symptom at the time of admission (53.2%). Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 46-59 years, 3.4 [95% CI: 1.5-7.7]; 60-74 years, 4.1 [95% CI: 1.7-9.5]; and $ 75 years, 11.0 [95% CI: 4.0-30.6]); preexisting diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.2-2.9]); malignancy (aOR: 3.1 [95% CI: 1.3-7.8]); pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR: 3.3 [95% CI: 1.2-8.8]); breathlessness at the time of admission (aOR: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.4-3.5]); high quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at the time of admission (aOR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.7-11.4]); and oxygen saturation , 94% at the time of admission (aOR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6-3.9]) were associated with mortality due to COVID-19. These results can be used to prioritize patients who are at increased risk of death and to rationalize therapy to reduce mortality due to COVID-19.
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' '<jats:italic>Cases were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 patients who died in the ' 'hospital during the period of study and controls were microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 ' 'patients who were discharged from the same hospital after recovery</jats:italic>. Cases were ' 'recruited sequentially from March 2020 until December–March 2021. All information regarding ' 'cases and controls was extracted retrospectively from the medical records of patients by ' 'trained physicians. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was done to assess the ' 'association between various predictor variables and deaths due to COVID-19. A total of 2,431 ' 'patients (1,137 cases and 1,294 controls) were included in the study. The mean age of ' 'patients was 52.8 years (SD: 16.5 years), and 32.1% were females. Breathlessness was the most ' 'common symptom at the time of admission (53.2%). Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: ' '46–59 years, 3.4 [95% CI: 1.5–7.7]; 60–74 years, 4.1 [95% CI: 1.7–9.5]; and ≥ 75 years, 11.0 ' '[95% CI: 4.0–30.6]); preexisting diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.2–2.9]); malignancy ' '(aOR: 3.1 [95% CI: 1.3–7.8]); pulmonary tuberculosis (aOR: 3.3 [95% CI: 1.2–8.8]); ' 'breathlessness at the time of admission (aOR: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.4–3.5]); high quick Sequential ' 'Organ Failure Assessment score at the time of admission (aOR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.7–11.4]); and ' 'oxygen saturation &lt; 94% at the time of admission (aOR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6–3.9]) were ' 'associated with mortality due to COVID-19. 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'Clinical presentation, outcomes and factors associated with mortality: ' 'a prospective study from three COVID-19 referral care centres in West ' 'Africa', 'volume': '108', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b20', 'series-title': 'Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol', 'first-page': '775', 'article-title': 'Predictors for in-hospital mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 ' '(COVID-19) infection among adults aged 18–65 years', 'volume': '42', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b21', 'series-title': 'J Infect Public Health', 'first-page': '1028', 'article-title': 'Predictors of critical illness and mortality based on symptoms and ' 'initial physical examination for patients with SARS-CoV-2: a ' 'retrospective cohort study', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b22', 'series-title': 'J Intern Med', 'first-page': '469', 'article-title': 'Older age and comorbidity are independent mortality predictors in a ' 'large cohort of 1305 COVID-19 patients in Michigan, United States', 'volume': '288', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': 'b23', 'series-title': 'Rev Endocr Metab Disord', 'first-page': '275', 'article-title': 'Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized ' 'patients: systematic review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b24', 'series-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'first-page': '497', 'article-title': 'Repurposed antiviral drugs for Covid-19: interim WHO Solidarity Trial ' 'results', 'volume': '384', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b25', 'series-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'first-page': '693', 'article-title': 'Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19', 'volume': '384', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b26', 'series-title': 'Lancet', 'first-page': '2049', 'article-title': 'Convalescent plasma in patients admitted to hospital with Covid-19 ' '(RECOVERY): a randomized controlled, open-label, platform trial', 'volume': '397', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': 'b27', 'series-title': 'BMJ', 'first-page': 'm3939', 'article-title': 'Convalescent plasma in the management of moderate Covid-19 in adults in ' 'India: open label phase II multicentre randomized controlled trial ' '(PLACID Trial)', 'volume': '371', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': 'b28', 'series-title': 'PLOS One', 'first-page': 'e0263471', 'article-title': 'Predictors of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and risk ' 'score formulation for prioritizing tertiary care—an experience from ' 'south India', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'Gopalan', 'year': '2022'}], 'container-title': 'The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene', 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/108/4/article-p727.xml', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.ajtmh.org/downloadpdf/journals/tpmd/108/4/article-p727.xml', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'syndication'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.ajtmh.org/downloadpdf/journals/tpmd/108/4/article-p727.xml', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2023-04-05T14:33:35Z', 'timestamp': 1680705215000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/108/4/article-p727.xml'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 5]]}, 'references-count': 28, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4'}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.22-0705', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['0002-9637', '1476-1645'], 'subject': ['Virology', 'Infectious Diseases', 'Parasitology'], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 4, 5]]}}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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