Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Lack of improvement ≥1.. 37% Improvement Relative Risk Persistence ≥1 year 14% Presence of symptoms 19% HCQ  Ganesh et al.  LATE TREATMENT  DB RCT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 179 patients in Canada No significant difference in outcomes seen Ganesh et al., CMAJ Open, July 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Patient-reported outcomes of neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild COVID-19: a prospective cohort study

Ganesh et al., CMAJ Open, doi:10.9778/cmajo.20220248, NCT04329611
Jul 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Long term neurologic and neuropsychiatric followup for a 7 day delayed treatment RCT showing lower risk of symptoms with treatment, without statistical significance.
When a patient reported a symptom, they were asked whether they were still experiencing that symptom, and to choose between these three options when comparing the symptom to their pre-COVID-19 state: (1) “Yes, this problem remains the same”; (2) “Yes, but there’s been SOME improvement”; or (3) “No, this is back to normal”. The patient was classified as having “no improvement” at 1-year if they reported ≥1 symptom at both visits, for which they indicated that the problem remained the same at 1-year. Persistence refers to patients reporting ≥1 symptom that emerged post-COVID-19 and was still present at the time of assessment. For presence of symptoms, the patient reported ≥1 symptom that emerged with or after their COVID-19 infection at some point prior to the time of assessment.
lack of improvement ≥1 year, 37.0% lower, OR 0.63, p = 0.15, treatment 90, control 89, RR approximated with OR.
persistence ≥1 year, 14.0% lower, OR 0.86, p = 0.16, treatment 90, control 89, RR approximated with OR.
presence of symptoms, 19.0% lower, OR 0.81, p = 0.37, treatment 90, control 89, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ganesh et al., 31 Jul 2023, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Canada, peer-reviewed, median age 45.0, 14 authors, trial NCT04329611 (history). Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Patient-reported outcomes of neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms in mild COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
Aravind Ganesh, MSc Ryan E Rosentreter, Yushi Chen, MD Rahul Mehta, MD Graham A Mcleod, MD Miranda W Wan, MD Jonathan D Krett, MD Yasamin Mahjoub, MD Angela S Lee, MD Ilan S Schwartz, PhD Lawrence P Richer, MD MSc Luanne M Metz, MD Eric E Smith, MD MPH Michael D Hill
CMAJ Open, doi:10.9778/cmajo.20220248
here is growing appreciation that various neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms may be seen in patients with COVID-19. 1 Meta-analyses have shown a range of neurologic symptoms, including headache, myalgia and confusion, and rarer critical manifestations such as stroke and seizures, in one-third of patients admitted to hospital. 2,3 However, a major limitation to the generalizability of such frequency estimates is that published studies have generally included only patients admitted to hospital or those who were critically ill. 2, 4 Most patients with COVID-19 do not require hospital admission. The prevalence and spectrum of symptoms among communitydwelling patients with milder COVID-19 may be quite different.
Ethics approval The Conjoint Health Research Ethics Board of the University of Calgary approved the study (REB20-0790). Competing interests: Aravind Ganesh reports membership on the editorial boards of Neurology, Stroke and Neurology Clinical Practice; consulting fees and honoraria from Atheneum, MD Analytics, Figure 1 Funding: This work was supported by the Calgary Health Trust, the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, Alberta Health Services and the Government of Alberta. Hydroxychloroquine and matching placebo were provided by Apotex. The funders had no role in study design, interpretation or publication. Content licence: This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original publication is properly cited, the use is noncommercial (i.e., research or educational use), and no modifications or adaptations are made. See: -nd/4.0/ Data sharing: Deidentified data are available on request to the corresponding author with an accompanying proposal and analysis plan. Supplemental information: For reviewer comments and the original submission of this manuscript, please see E696/suppl/DC1.
Bansback, Tsuchiya, Brazier, Canadian valuation of EQ-5D health states: preliminary value set and considerations for future valuation studies, PLoS One
Bodro, Compta, Sánchez-Valle, Presentations and mechanisms of CNS disorders related to COVID-19, Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm
Bruijnen, Dijkstra, Walvoort, Psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy participants aged 18-70, Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract
Chen, Wu, Chen, Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study, BMJ
Chen, Yeh, Huang, Validation and comparison of the informant-rated and self-rated versions of the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist, J Alzheimers Dis
Frontera, Sabadia, Lalchan, A prospective study of neurologic disorders in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in New York City, Neurology
Frontera, Yang, Medicherla, Trajectories of neurologic recovery 12 months after hospitalization for COVID-19: a prospective longitudinal study, Neurology
Ganesh, Reis, Varma, Neurological and head/eyes/ears/nose/ throat manifestations of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Can J Neurol Sci
Hampshire, Trender, Chamberlain, Cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19, EClinicalMedicine
Harrison, Stott, Mcshane, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) for the early diagnosis of dementia across a variety of healthcare settings, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Heaton, Grant, Mathews, Differences in neuropsychological test performance associated with age, education and sex
Helms, Kremer, Merdji, Neurologic features in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, N Engl J Med
Huang, Huang, Wang, 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study, Lancet
Ismail, Agüera-Ortiz, Brodaty, NPS Professional Interest Area of the International Society of to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (NPS-PIA of ISTAART). The Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C): a rating scale for neuropsychiatric symptoms in pre-dementia populations, J Alzheimers Dis
Jaywant, Vanderlind, Alexopoulos, Frequency and profile of objective cognitive deficits in hospitalized patients recovering from COVID-19, Neuropsychopharmacology
Kessler, Andrews, Colpe, Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress, Psychol Med
Kompaniyets, Pennington, Goodman, Underlying medical conditions and severe illness among 540,667 adults hospitalized with COVID-19, Prev Chronic Dis
Lancet, Long COVID: understanding the neurological effects [editorial], Lancet Neurol
Liu, Chen, Wang, One-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older survivors of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a longitudinal cohort study, JAMA Neurol
Magnúsdóttir, Lovik, Unnarsdóttir, COVIDMENT Collaboration. Acute COVID-19 severity and mental health morbidity trajectories in patient populations of six nations: an observational study, Lancet Public Health
Mallo, Ismail, Pereiro, Assessing mild behavioral impairment with the Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist in people with mild cognitive impairment, J Alzheimers Dis
Mao, Wang, Neurologic manifestations of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease, JAMA Neurol
Mcgovern, Pendlebury, Mishra, Test accuracy of informantbased cognitive screening tests for diagnosis of dementia and multidomain cognitive impairment in stroke, Stroke
Mehra, Ruschitzka, Patel, Retraction -Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis [retracted], Lancet
Misra, Kolappa, Prasad, Frequency of neurologic manifestations in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Neurology
Nakamura, Watanabe, Kitamura, Psychological distress as a risk factor for dementia after the 2004 Niigata-Chuetsu earthquake in Japan, J Affect Disord
Oh, Park, Song, Risk of psychological sequelae among coronavirus disease 2019 survivors: a nationwide cohort study in South Korea, Depress Anxiety
Pendlebury, Welch, Cuthbertson, Telephone assessment of cognition after transient ischemic attack and stroke: modified telephone interview of cognitive status and telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment versus face-to-face Montreal Cognitive Assessment and neuropsychological battery, Stroke
Rivero-Arias, Ouellet, Gray, Mapping the modified Rankin scale (mRS) measurement into the generic EuroQol (EQ-5D) health outcome, Med Decis Making
Rogers, Chesney, Oliver, Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic, Lancet Psychiatry
Schwartz, Boesen, Cerchiaro, ALBERTA HOPE COVID-19 Collaborators. Assessing the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine as outpatient treatment of COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial, CMAJ Open
Seiden, Duncan, The diagnosis of a conductive olfactory loss, Laryngoscope
Taquet, Geddes, Husain, 6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Lancet Psychiatry
Taylor, Agho, Stevens, Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza, BMC Public Health
Xiong, Xu, Li, Clinical sequelae of COVID-19 survivors in Wuhan, China: a single-centre longitudinal study, Clin Microbiol Infect
Zietemann, Kopczak, Müller, Validation of the telephone interview of cognitive status and Telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment against detailed cognitive testing and clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment after stroke, Stroke
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop