Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -27% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Fried et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 11,721 patients in the USA Higher mortality with HCQ (p=0.001) Fried et al., Clinical Infectious Dise.., Aug 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11,721 Patients with COVID19 Hospitalized Across the United States

Fried et al., Clinical Infectious Disease, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1268
Aug 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Database analysis of 11,721 hospitalized patients, 4,232 on HCQ. Strong evidence for confounding by indication and compassionate use of HCQ. 24.9% of HCQ patients were on mechanical ventilation versus 12.2% control. Ventilation mortality was 70.5% versus 11.6%.
This study does not adjust for the differences in comorbid conditions and disease severity, and therefore does not make a conclusion. Unadjusted HCQ mortality was 24.8% versus control 19.6%. Adjusting for ventilation only gives us 17.7% HCQ versus 19.6% control (adjusting the HCQ group to have the same proportion of ventilation patients), RR 0.90. Hopefully authors can do a full adjustment analysis. Comorbidities may favor control, while patients remaining in the hospital (5.3%) may favor HCQ (other studies show faster resolution for HCQ patients).
Data inconsistencies have been found in this study, for example 99.4% of patients treated with HCQ were treated in urban hospitals, compared to 65% of untreated patients (Supplemental Table 3), while patients are distributed in a more balanced manner between teaching or not-teaching hospitals, as well as in the most urbanized (Northeast) and less urbanized (Midwest) regions of the United States
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups; substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Study covers remdesivir and HCQ.
risk of death, 27.0% higher, RR 1.27, p < 0.001, treatment 1,048 of 4,232 (24.8%), control 1,466 of 7,489 (19.6%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Fried et al., 28 Aug 2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11 721 Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Hospitalized Across the United States
Michael W Fried, Julie M Crawford, Andrea R Mospan, Stephanie E Watkins, Breda Munoz, Richard C Zink, Sherry Elliott, Kyle Burleson, Charles Landis, K Rajender Reddy, Robert S Brown Jr
Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1268
Background. As coronavirus disease 2019 disseminates throughout the United States, a better understanding of the patient characteristics associated with hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in diverse geographic regions is essential. Methods. Hospital chargemaster data on adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to 245 hospitals across 38 states between 15 February and 20 April 2020 were assessed. The clinical course from admission, through hospitalization, and to discharge or death was analyzed. Results. A total of 11 721 patients were included (majority were >60 years of age [59.9%] and male [53.4%]). Comorbidities included hypertension (46.7%), diabetes (27.8%), cardiovascular disease (18.6%), obesity (16.1%), and chronic kidney disease (12.2%). Mechanical ventilation was required by 1967 patients (16.8%). Mortality among hospitalized patients was 21.4% and increased to 70.5% among those on mechanical ventilation. Male sex, older age, obesity, geographic region, and the presence of chronic kidney disease or a preexisting cardiovascular disease were associated with increased odds of mechanical ventilation. All aforementioned risk factors, with the exception of obesity, were associated with increased odds of death (all P values < .001). Many patients received investigational medications for treatment of COVID-19, including 48 patients on remdesivir and 4232 on hydroxychloroquine. Conclusions. This large observational cohort describes the clinical course and identifies factors associated with the outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across the United States. These data can inform strategies to prioritize prevention and treatment for this disease.
Supplementary Data Supplementary materials are available at Clinical Infectious Diseases online. Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit the reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author. Notes Disclaimer. TARGET was responsible for the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review and approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The data were derived from a commercial insurance claims database that requires a data sharing agreement and data license for access. institutional grants from TARGET-HCC, TARGET-NASH and HCV-TARGET. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.
Andreani, Bideau, Duflot, In vitro testing of combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on SARS-CoV-2 shows synergistic effect, Microb Pathog
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19-preliminary report, New Eng J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007764
Brufsky, Distinct viral clades of SARS-CoV-2: implications for modeling of viral spread, J Med Virol
Caputo, Strayer, Levitan, Early self-proning in awake, non-intubated patients in the emergency department: a single ED's experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, Acad Emerg Med
Cavalcanti, Zampieri, Rosa, Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate COVID-19, New Eng J Med, doi:10.1056/nejmoa2019014
Dias, Shardell, Golden, Ahima, Crews, Racial/ethnic trends in prevalence of diabetic kidney disease in the United States, Kidney Int Rep
Garg, Kim, Whitaker, Hospitalization rates and characteristics of patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019-COVID-NET, 14 States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Geleris, Sun, Platt, Observational study of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, N Engl J Med
Ghebreyesus, Director-general's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11
Gorbalenya, Baker, Baric, The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2, Nat Microbiol
Goyal, Choi, Pinheiro, Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in New York City, N Engl J Med
Grein, Myers, Brainard, Compassionate use of remdesivir in COVID-19. Reply, N Engl J Med
Hackler E 3 Rd, Lew, Gore, Racial differences in cardiovascular biomarkers in the general population, J Am Heart Assoc
Holshue, Debolt, Lindquist, Washington State 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Case Investigation Team. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States, N Engl J Med
Lippi, Henry, Active smoking is not associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Eur J Intern Med
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Pastick, Okafor, Wang, Review: hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), Open Forum Infect Dis
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area, JAMA
Schneeweiss, Avorn, A review of uses of health care utilization databases for epidemiologic research on therapeutics, J Clin Epidemiol
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Wang, Hu, Hu, Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China, JAMA
Ward, Black, State and regional prevalence of diagnosed multiple chronic conditions among adults aged ≥18 years-United States, 2014, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Yancy, COVID-19 and African Americans, JAMA
Zhao, Meng, Kumar, The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: a systemic review and meta-analysis, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.25889
Zhao, Zhang, Li, Incidence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.17.20037572
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop