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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 47% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Donida et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 723 patients in Italy (February - May 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.1) Donida et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, Jan 2024 Favors HCQ Favors control

First COVID-19 wave in the province of Bergamo, Italy: epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and management of the first hospitalized patients

Donida et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-024-09034-4
Jan 2024  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 723 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Italy showing lower mortality with antirheumatic disease therapy, without statistical significance. Authors do not specify what medications are included, only mentioning HCQ/CQ which may represent most/all of the group.
risk of death, 47.0% lower, HR 0.53, p = 0.10, treatment 180 of 548 (32.8%), control 101 of 175 (57.7%), NNT 4.0, adjusted per study, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Donida et al., 31 Jan 2024, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period 21 February, 2020 - 31 May, 2020. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
First COVID-19 wave in the province of Bergamo, Italy: epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcome and management of the first hospitalized patients
Bianca Maria Donida, Flavia Simonetta Pirola, Roberto Opizzi, Peter Assembergs
BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-024-09034-4
Background Northern Italy was the first European country affected by the spread of the SARS-CoV-2, with the epicenter in the province of Bergamo. Aim This study aims to analyze the characteristics of patients who experienced more severe symptoms during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods We retrospectively collected epidemiological and clinical data on patients with laboratoryconfirmed wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted to the "ASST Bergamo Ovest" hospital between February 21 and May 31, 2020. Results A total of seven hundred twenty-three inpatients met the eligible criteria and were included in the study cohort. Among the inpatients who survived, the average hospital length of stay was more than two weeks, with some lasting up to three months. Among the 281 non-survivors, death occurred in 50% within five days. Survivors were those whose first aid operators recorded higher oxygen saturation levels at home. The request for first aid assistance came more than one week after symptom onset, within three days in 10% of cases. Conclusion In similar future scenarios, based on our data, if we aim to enhance the survival rate, we need to improve the territorial healthcare assistance and admit to hospitals only those patients who are at risk of severe illness requiring specialized and urgent interventions within two, three, or, at most, five days from the onset of symptoms. This implies that the crucial factor is, has been, and will be the ability of a healthcare system to react promptly in its entirety within a few days.
Abbreviations Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https://doi. org/10.1186/s12879-024-09034-4. Supplementary Material 1 Author contributions PA defined the area of interest, and he delineated the research's project. BMD organized the work, investigated hospital discharge records, medical charts, and pathological reports, manually implementing the database. RO extracted Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate This study was submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee of Bergamo (Bergamo, BG, Italy) with the procedure's reference "096/22". All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects and/or their legal guardian(s) in accordance with the approved ethical standards for retrospective observational study without drugs. Consent for publication Not Applicable. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Ibanez-Samaniego, Bighelli, Elevation of liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19, J infect Dis, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa355
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Lee, Mayberry, Crapo, Jensen, The accuracy of pulse oximetry in the emergency department, Am J Emerg Med, doi:10.1053/ajem.2000.7330
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Late treatment
is less effective
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