Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 26% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Dev et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 759 patients in India Fewer cases with HCQ (p=0.003) Dev et al., Transactions of The Royal .., Mar 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Risk factors and frequency of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care centre in India: a case–control study

Dev et al., Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.1093/trstmh/trab047
Mar 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective case control study of 3,100 healthcare workers in India showing lower cases with HCQ prophylaxis, and an inverse association between the number of HCQ doses taken and the risk of COVID-19 cases. Low risk population with no mortality and no severe cases.
risk of case, 26.0% lower, RR 0.74, p = 0.003, treatment 260, control 499, any number of HCQ doses vs. no HCQ prophylaxis.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Dev et al., 24 Mar 2021, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Risk factors and frequency of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care centre in India: a case–control study
Nishanth Dev, Ramesh Chand Meena, D K Gupta, Nitesh Gupta, Jhuma Sankar
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.1093/trstmh/trab047
Background: There is a paucity of data on risk factors for infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) from India. Our objective was to evaluate the risk factors and frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among HCWs. Methods: We conducted this retrospective case-control study of 3100 HCWs between May and July 2020. HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were the cases (n=506) and those negative for SARS-CoV-2 were the controls (n=253). Univariate analysis was followed by multivariate analysis of key demographic, clinical and infection control variables. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection was found in 16.32% of HCWs. Nearly 45% of infected HCWs were asymptomatic. The proportions of sanitation workers (24% vs 8%; p<0.0001) and technicians (10% vs 4%; p=0.0002) were higher and that of doctors was lower among cases as compared with controls (23% vs 43%; p<0.0001). On univariate analysis, the type of HCW, smoking, lack of training, inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE) use and taking no or fewer doses of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be significant. On multivariate analysis, the type of HCW (risk ratio [RR] 1.67 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.34 to 2.08], p<0.0001), inappropriate PPE use (RR 0.63 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.89], p=0.01) and taking fewer doses of HCQ (RR 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99], p=0.03) were significant. Conclusions: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 16% among HCWs. Being a sanitation worker, inappropriate PPE use and lack of HCQ prophylaxis predisposed HCWs to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors' contributions: ND, RCM, JS, DKG and NG conceived the study. ND, RCM, DKG and NG collected the data. ND, RCM and JS verified the data. ND and JS performed the statistical analyses. ND and JS cleaned data. ND, RCM, JS, DKG and NG drafted the manuscript and approved the final draft. Competing interests: None declared. Ethical approval: This study was approved by the Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital Institutional Ethics Committee.
Abella, Jolkovsky, Biney, Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo for pre-exposure SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis among health care workers: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA Intern Med
Cdc Covid-, Characteristics of health care personnel with COVID-19 -United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Chatterjee, Anand, Singh, Healthcare workers & SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: a case-control investigation in the time of COVID-19, Indian J Med Res
Chen, Tong, Wang, High SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence among healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 patients, J Infect
Chu, Akl, Duda, Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet
Contejean, Leporrier, Canouï, Comparing dynamics and determinants of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions among health care workers of adult and pediatric settings in central Paris, Clin Infect Dis
Dev, Kumar, Sankar, COVID-19 infection outbreak among health care workers: perspective from a low-middle income country, Monaldi Arch Chest Dis, doi:10.4081/monaldi.2020.1474
Gómez-Ochoa, Franco, Rojas, COVID-19 in healthcare workers: a living systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcomes, Am J Epidemiol
Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, Buiting, Pas, Prevalence and clinical presentation of health care workers with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 in 2 Dutch hospitals during an early phase of the pandemic, JAMA Netw Open
Lai, Wang, Qin, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) infection among health care workers and implications for prevention measures in a tertiary hospital in Wuhan, China, JAMA Netw Open
Levy, Fink, Marshall, SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference, Intensive Care Med
Liu, Cheng, Xu, Use of personal protective equipment against coronavirus disease 2019 by healthcare professionals in Wuhan, China: cross sectional study, BMJ
Lombardi, Consonni, Carugno, Characteristics of 1573 healthcare workers who underwent nasopharyngeal swab testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Milan, Lombardy, Italy, Clin Microbiol Infect
Ran, Chen, Wang, Risk factors of healthcare workers with corona virus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study in a designated hospital of Wuhan in China, Clin Infect Dis
Sikkema, Pas, Nieuwenhuijse, COVID-19 in healthcare workers in three hospitals in the south of the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study, Lancet Infect Dis
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop