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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 26% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Dev et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 759 patients in India Fewer cases with HCQ (p=0.003) c19hcq.org Dev et al., Transactions of The Royal .., Mar 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Risk factors and frequency of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care centre in India: a case–control study

Dev et al., Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.1093/trstmh/trab047
Mar 2021  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective case control study of 3,100 healthcare workers in India showing lower cases with HCQ prophylaxis, and an inverse association between the number of HCQ doses taken and the risk of COVID-19 cases. Low risk population with no mortality and no severe cases.
risk of case, 26.0% lower, RR 0.74, p = 0.003, treatment 260, control 499, any number of HCQ doses vs. no HCQ prophylaxis.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Dev et al., 24 Mar 2021, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Risk factors and frequency of COVID-19 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care centre in India: a case–control study
Nishanth Dev, Ramesh Chand Meena, D K Gupta, Nitesh Gupta, Jhuma Sankar
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.1093/trstmh/trab047
Background: There is a paucity of data on risk factors for infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) from India. Our objective was to evaluate the risk factors and frequency of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among HCWs. Methods: We conducted this retrospective case-control study of 3100 HCWs between May and July 2020. HCWs positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were the cases (n=506) and those negative for SARS-CoV-2 were the controls (n=253). Univariate analysis was followed by multivariate analysis of key demographic, clinical and infection control variables. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection was found in 16.32% of HCWs. Nearly 45% of infected HCWs were asymptomatic. The proportions of sanitation workers (24% vs 8%; p<0.0001) and technicians (10% vs 4%; p=0.0002) were higher and that of doctors was lower among cases as compared with controls (23% vs 43%; p<0.0001). On univariate analysis, the type of HCW, smoking, lack of training, inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE) use and taking no or fewer doses of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were found to be significant. On multivariate analysis, the type of HCW (risk ratio [RR] 1.67 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.34 to 2.08], p<0.0001), inappropriate PPE use (RR 0.63 [95% CI 0.44 to 0.89], p=0.01) and taking fewer doses of HCQ (RR 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99], p=0.03) were significant. Conclusions: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 16% among HCWs. Being a sanitation worker, inappropriate PPE use and lack of HCQ prophylaxis predisposed HCWs to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Authors' contributions: ND, RCM, JS, DKG and NG conceived the study. ND, RCM, DKG and NG collected the data. ND, RCM and JS verified the data. ND and JS performed the statistical analyses. ND and JS cleaned data. ND, RCM, JS, DKG and NG drafted the manuscript and approved the final draft. Competing interests: None declared. Ethical approval: This study was approved by the Vardhman Mahavir Medical College & Safdarjung Hospital Institutional Ethics Committee.
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