Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

A Multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine and a retrospective study in adult patients with mild to moderate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Chen et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0242763
Jul 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Viral clearance -29% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Chen et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 37 patients in Taiwan No significant difference in viral clearance Chen et al., PLoS ONE, July 2020 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
2 very small studies with hospitalized patients in Taiwan.
RCT with 21 treatment and 12 SOC patients. No mortality, or serious adverse effects. Median time to negative RNA 5 days versus 10 days SOC, p=0.4. Risk of PCR+ at day 14, RR 0.76, p = 0.71.
Small retrospective study with 12 of 28 HCQ patients and 5 of 9 in the control group being PCR- at day 14, RR 1.29, p = 0.7.
The RCT and retrospective study are listed separately1,2.
Viral load measured by PCR may not accurately reflect infectious virus measured by viral culture. Porter et al. show that viral load early in infection was correlated with infectious virus, but viral load late in infection could be high even with low or undetectable infectious virus. Assessing viral load later in infection may underestimate reductions in infectious virus with treatment.
risk of no viral clearance, 29.0% higher, RR 1.29, p = 0.70, treatment 16 of 28 (57.1%), control 4 of 9 (44.4%), day 14.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Chen et al., 10 Jul 2020, retrospective, Taiwan, peer-reviewed, 19 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 3]], 'date-time': '2024-03-03T01:54:12Z', 'timestamp': 1709430852425}, 'reference-count': 35, 'publisher': 'Public Library of Science (PLoS)', 'issue': '12', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]], 'date-time': '2020-12-02T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1606867200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}], 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/100008903', 'name': 'Ministry of Health and Welfare', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [''], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:sec id="sec001">\n' '<jats:title>Objective</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) against ' 'coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a ' 'retrospective study.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec id="sec002">\n' '<jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>Subjects admitted to 11 designated public hospitals in Taiwan between April 1 and May ' '31, 2020, with COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by pharyngeal real-time RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2, ' 'were randomized at a 2:1 ratio and stratified by mild or moderate illness. HCQ (400 mg twice ' 'for 1 d or HCQ 200 mg twice daily for 6 days) was administered. Both the study and control ' 'group received standard of care (SOC). Pharyngeal swabs and sputum were collected every other ' 'day. The proportion and time to negative viral PCR were assessed on day 14. In the ' 'retrospective study, medical records were reviewed for patients admitted before March 31, ' '2020.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec id="sec003">\n' '<jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>There were 33 and 37 cases in the RCT and retrospective study, respectively. In the ' 'RCT, the median times to negative rRT-PCR from randomization to hospital day 14 were 5 days ' '(95% CI; 1, 9 days) and 10 days (95% CI; 2, 12 days) for the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.40). On day 14, 81.0% (17/21) and 75.0% (9/12) of the ' 'subjects in the HCQ and SOC groups, respectively, had undetected virus ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.36). In the retrospective study, 12 (42.9%) in the HCQ ' 'group and 5 (55.6%) in the control group had negative rRT-PCR results on hospital day 14 ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.70).</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec id="sec004">\n' '<jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>Neither study demonstrated that HCQ shortened viral shedding in mild to moderate ' 'COVID-19 subjects.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0242763', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]], 'date-time': '2020-12-02T19:19:35Z', 'timestamp': 1606936775000}, 'page': 'e0242763', 'update-policy': '', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 35, 'title': 'A multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and ' 'tolerability of hydroxychloroquine and a retrospective study in adult patients with mild to ' 'moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)', 'prefix': '10.1371', 'volume': '15', 'author': [ {'given': 'Cheng-Pin', 'family': 'Chen', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Yi-Chun', 'family': 'Lin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Tsung-Chia', 'family': 'Chen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ting-Yu', 'family': 'Tseng', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Hon-Lai', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Cheng-Yu', 'family': 'Kuo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Wu-Pu', 'family': 'Lin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Sz-Rung', 'family': 'Huang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Wei-Yao', 'family': 'Wang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Jia-Hung', 'family': 'Liao', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Chung-Shin', 'family': 'Liao', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Yuan-Pin', 'family': 'Hung', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Tse-Hung', 'family': 'Lin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Tz-Yan', 'family': 'Chang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Chin-Fu', 'family': 'Hsiao', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Yi-Wen', 'family': 'Huang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Wei-Sheng', 'family': 'Chung', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Chien-Yu', 'family': 'Cheng', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': True, 'given': 'Shu-Hsing', 'family': 'Cheng', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'name': 'on behalf of the Taiwan HCQ Study Group', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '340', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref001', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and ' 'the viral that caused it [cited 2020 June 20]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref002', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Statement on the second meeting or the ' 'International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding ' 'the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [cited 2020 June 20]. ' 'Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref003', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. WHO director-general’s opening remarks at the ' 'media briefing on COVID-19 [cited 2020 June 20]. Available from: ' '—11-march-2020'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref004', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Novel coronavirus situation report-151. ' 'Geneva, Switzerland [cited 2020 June 20]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '747', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jfma.2020.02.007', 'article-title': 'First case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Taiwan', 'volume': '119', 'author': 'SC Cheng', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Formos Med Assoc'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref006', 'unstructured': 'Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. CECC confirmed 1 more imported ' 'COVID-19 case; case returns to Taiwan from Bangladesh [cited 2020 June ' '20]. Accessed on: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref007', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '926', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001191', 'article-title': 'First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'ML Holshue', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref008', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '269', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged ' 'novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'M Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell Res'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref009', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '222', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6', 'article-title': 'Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination ' 'lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'TP Sheahan', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Nat Commun'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '449', 'DOI': '10.2183/pjab.93.027', 'article-title': 'Favipiravir (T-705), a broad spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase', 'volume': '93', 'author': 'Y Furuta', 'year': '2017', 'journal-title': 'Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref011', 'first-page': '488', 'article-title': 'Lopinavir/ritonavir did not shorten the duration of SARS CoV-2 shedding ' 'in patients with mild pneumonia', 'volume': '53', 'author': 'CY Cheng', 'journal-title': 'Taiwan. J Microbiol Infect Immunol. 2020'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref012', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1787', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001282', 'article-title': 'A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe ' 'COVID-19', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'B Cao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'New Engl J Med'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref013', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '104787', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787', 'article-title': 'The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'in vitro', 'volume': '178', 'author': 'L Caly', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Res'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref014', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '905', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004', 'article-title': 'Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infections in engineered human tissues using ' 'clinical-grade soluble human ACE2', 'volume': '181', 'author': 'V Monteil', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '105949', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: Results ' 'of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'P Gautret', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref016', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '992', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.009', 'article-title': 'Complex immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients with severe ' 'respiratory failure', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'EJ Giamarellos-Bourboulis', 'journal-title': 'Cell Host Microbe. 2020'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1237', 'DOI': '10.7150/ijbs.4989', 'article-title': 'IL-6 trans-signaling via the soluble IL-6 receptor: importance for the ' 'pro-inflammatory activities of IL-6', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'S Rose-John', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'Int J Biol Sci'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref018', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '722', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5', 'article-title': 'Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s ' 'diseases', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'A Savarino', 'year': '2003', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref019', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '69', 'DOI': '10.1186/1743-422X-2-69', 'article-title': 'Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and ' 'spread', 'volume': '2', 'author': 'MJ Vincent', 'year': '2005', 'journal-title': 'Virol J'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '104854', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104854', 'article-title': 'Current targeted therapeutics against COVID-19: based on first-line ' 'experience in China', 'volume': '157', 'author': 'Y Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Res'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref021', 'unstructured': 'U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Reply to request for emergency use ' 'authorization for use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine ' 'sulfate supplied from the strategic national stockpile for treatment of ' '2019 Coronavirus Disease [cited 2020 June 20]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref022', 'article-title': 'Retraction: cardiovascular disease, drug therapy, and mortality in ' 'Covid-19', 'author': 'MR Mehra', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref023', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1820', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31324-6', 'article-title': 'Retraction—hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a ' 'macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'MR Mehra', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref024', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Diagnostic detection of 2019-nCoV by ' 'real-time RT-PCR [cited 2020 June 20]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref025', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '72', 'DOI': '10.5582/bst.2020.01047', 'article-title': 'Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in ' 'treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'J Gao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Biosci Trends'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref026', 'unstructured': 'National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China. National ' 'recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of respiratory infections ' 'caused by 2019-nCoV (6th ed) [cited 2020 June 6]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref027', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e208857', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857', 'article-title': 'Effect of high vs low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive ' 'therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a randomized clinical ' 'trial', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'MGS Borba', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref028', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '101663', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101663', 'article-title': 'Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of ' 'hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at ' 'least a six-day follow up: an observational study', 'volume': '34', 'author': 'P Gautret', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Travel Med Infect Dis'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref029', 'article-title': 'Observational study of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with ' 'Covid-19', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'J Geleris', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'New Engl J Med'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref030', 'first-page': '396', 'article-title': 'Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and combination in ' 'patients hospitalized with COVID-19', 'volume': '97', 'author': 'S Arshada', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Infect Dis'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref031', 'first-page': '215', 'article-title': 'A pilot study of hydroxychloroquine in treatment of patients with ' 'common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'J Chen', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref032', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a ' 'randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Z Chen', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref033', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'm1849', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1849', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus ' 'disease 2019: open label, randomized controlled trial', 'volume': '369', 'author': 'W Tang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref034', 'unstructured': 'Taiwan CDC. Interim guidelines for clinical management of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection (5th ed.) [cited 2020 June 6]. Available from: ' ''}, { 'key': 'pone.0242763.ref035', 'first-page': 'ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)', 'author': 'X Yao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}], 'container-title': 'PLOS ONE', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]], 'date-time': '2020-12-02T19:21:05Z', 'timestamp': 1606936865000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'editor': [{'given': 'Stephen L.', 'family': 'Atkin', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]]}, 'references-count': 35, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '12', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]]}}, 'URL': '', 'relation': { 'has-preprint': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.1101/2020.07.08.20148841', 'asserted-by': 'object'}]}, 'ISSN': ['1932-6203'], 'subject': ['Multidisciplinary'], 'container-title-short': 'PLoS ONE', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 2]]}}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop