Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 56% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Cárdenas-Jaén et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 829 patients in Spain (May - September 2020) Lower severe cases with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.13) Cárdenas-Jaén et al., Gastroenterologí.., Jun 2023 Favors HCQ Favors control

Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, an international multicentre prospective cohort study (TIVURON project)

Cárdenas-Jaén et al., Gastroenterología y Hepatología (English Edition), doi:10.1016/j.gastre.2023.05.002
Jun 2023  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 829 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain focused on gastrointestinal symptoms, showing lower risk of severe COVID-19 with HCQ treatment in bivariate analysis, without statistical significance.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted for baseline differences with no group details.
risk of severe case, 56.2% lower, RR 0.44, p = 0.13, treatment 3 of 42 (7.1%), control 126 of 787 (16.0%), NNT 11, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cárdenas-Jaén et al., 20 Jun 2023, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, median age 57.0, 44 authors, study period May 2020 - September 2020. Contact:
This PaperHCQAll
Gastrointestinal symptoms and complications in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, an international multicentre prospective cohort study (TIVURON project)
Karina Cárdenas-Jaén, Sergio A Sánchez-Luna, Alicia Vaillo-Rocamora, Micaela Riat Castro-Zocchi, Laura Guberna-Blanco, Daniel Useros-Brañas, José M Remes-Troche, Antonio Ramos-De La Medina, Bryan A Priego-Parra, José A Velarde-Ruiz Velasco, Pedro Martínez-Ayala, Álvaro Urzúa, Dannette Guiñez-Francois, Katarzyna M Pawlak, Katarzyna Kozłowska-Petriczko, Irati Gorroño-Zamalloa, Clara Urteaga-Casares, Inmaculada Ortiz-Polo, Adolfo Del Val Antoñana, Edgard E Lozada-Hernández, Enrique Obregón-Moreno, Guillermo García-Rayado, María José Domper-Arnal, Diego Casas-Deza, Elena I Esteban-Cabello, Luis A Díaz, Arnoldo Riquelme, Helena Martínez-Lozano, Francisco Navarro-Romero, Ignasi Olivas, Guillem Iborra-Muñoz, Alicia Calero-Amaro, Ibán Caravaca-García, Francisco J Lacueva-Gómez, Rubén Pastor-Mateu, Berta Lapeña-Muñoz, Violeta Sastre-Lozano, Nazaret M Pizarro-Vega, Luigi Melcarne, Marc Pedrosa-Aragón, José J Mira, Aurora Mula Mstat, Irene Carrillo, Enrique De-Madaria
Gastroenterología y Hepatología, doi:10.1016/j.gastrohep.2022.10.007
Background: Retrospective studies suggest that coronavirus disease (COVID-19) commonly involves gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and complications. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate GI manifestations in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Methods: This international multicentre prospective cohort study recruited COVID-19 patients hospitalized at 31 centres in Spain, Mexico, Chile, and Poland, between May and September 2020. Patients were followed-up until 15 days post-discharge and completed comprehensive questionnaires assessing GI symptoms and complications. A descriptive analysis as well as a bivariate and multivariate analysis were performer using binary logistic regression. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Eight hundred twenty-nine patients were enrolled; 129 (15.6%) had severe COVID-19, 113 (13.7%) required ICU admission, and 43 (5.2%) died. Upon admission, the most prevalent GI symptoms were anorexia (n = 413; 49.8%), diarrhoea (n = 327; 39.4%), nausea/vomiting (n = 227; 27.4%), and abdominal pain (n = 172; 20.7%), which were mild/moderate throughout the disease and resolved during follow-up. One-third of patients exhibited liver injury. Non-severe COVID-19 was associated with ≥2 GI symptoms upon admission (OR 0.679; 95% CI 0.464---0.995; p = 0.046) or diarrhoea during hospitalization (OR 0.531; 95% CI 0.328---0.860; p = 0.009). Multivariate analysis revealed that worse hospital outcomes were not independently associated with liver injury or GI symptoms. Conclusion: GI symptoms were more common than previously documented, and were mild, rapidly resolved, and not independently associated with COVID-19 severity. Liver injury was a frequent complication in hospitalized patients not independently associated with COVID-19 severity.
Authors' contributions All authors were involved in data acquisition and critical revision of the manuscript. E. de-Madaria and K. Cárdenas-Jaén conceptualized and designed the study. A. Vaillo monitored the study. K. Cárdenas-Jaén, J.J. Mira, A. Mula, I. Carrillo, and E. de-Madaria performed the primary analysis and interpretation of the data. K. Cárdenas-Jaén, S.A. Sánchez-Luna, J.J. Mira, A. Mula, I. Carrillo, and E. de-Madaria prepared the initial draft of the manuscript. All authors have approved the final version of the manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interests for this article. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi:10.1016/j. gastrohep.2022.10.007.
Bruni, Garofalo, Zuccalà, Currò, Torti et al., Histopathological findings in a COVID-19 patient affected by ischemic gangrenous cholecystitis, World J Emerg Surg
Calabrese, Zorzi, Monteleone, Vecchio Blanco, Onset of ulcerative colitis during SARS-CoV-2 infection, Dig Liver Dis
Chen, Agarwal, Ravindran, To, Zhang et al., Are gastrointestinal symptoms specific for coronavirus 2019 infection? A prospective case---control study from the United States, Gastroenterology
Colmenero, Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Salcedo, Arias-Milla, Muñoz-Serrano et al., Epidemiological pattern, incidence, and outcomes of COVID-19 in liver transplant patients, J Hepatol
De-Madaria, Capurso, COVID-19 and acute pancreatitis: examining the causality, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
Dong, Zhang, Ma, Tan, Chen et al., ACE2, TMPRSS2 distribution and extrapulmonary organ injury in patients with COVID-19, Biomed Pharmacother
Drake, Riad, Fairfield, Egan, Knight et al., Characterisation of in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, multicentre cohort study, Lancet
Díaz, García-Salum, Fuentes-López, Ferrés, Medina et al., Symptom profiles and risk factors for hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a large cohort from South America, Gastroenterology
Elmunzer, Spitzer, Foster, Merchant, Howard et al., Digestive manifestations in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol
Inamdar, Benias, Liu, Sejpal, Satapathy et al., Prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 presenting as acute pancreatitis, Gastroenterology
Kichloo, Dettloff, Aljadah, Albosta, Jamal et al., COVID-19 and hypercoagulability: a review, Clin Appl Thromb Hemost
Kumar, Arora, Sharma, Anikhindi, Bansal et al., Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of Corona Virus Disease-19 and their relationship to severe clinical course: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Indian J Gastroenterol
Lázaro, Meneses, Val Zaballos, Rivas, Ischemic colitis and short bowel disease due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19), Clin Nutr ESPEN
Mao, Qiu, He, Tan, Li et al., Manifestations and prognosis of gastrointestinal and liver involvement in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
Marasco, Cremon, Barbaro, Salvi, Cacciari et al., Prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: results of the prospective controlled multinational GI-COVID-19 study, Am J Gastroenterol
Pan, Mu, Yang, Sun, Wang et al., Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study, Am J Gastroenterol
Parohan, Yaghoubi, Seraji, Liver injury is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective studies, Hepatol Res
Phipps, Barraza, Lasota, Sobieszczyk, Pereira et al., Acute liver injury in COVID-19: prevalence and association with clinical outcomes in a large U.S. Cohort, Hepatology
Sarin, Choudhury, Lau, Zheng, Ji et al., Pre-existing liver disease is associated with poor outcome in patients with SARS CoV2 infection: the APCOLIS Study (APASL COVID-19 Liver Injury Spectrum Study), Hepatol Int
Saviano, Wrensch, Ghany, Baumert, Liver disease and coronavirus disease 2019: from pathogenesis to clinical care, Hepatology
Shehab, Alrashed, Shuaibi, Alajmi, Barkun, Gastroenterological and hepatic manifestations of patients with COVID-19, prevalence, mortality by country, and intensive care admission rate: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ Open Gastroenterol
Spiegel, Hays, Bolus, Melmed, Chang et al., Development of the NIH patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) gastrointestinal symptom scales, Am J Gastroenterol
Sultan, Altayar, Siddique, Davitkov, Feuerstein et al., AGA Institute rapid review of the gastrointestinal and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19, Gastroenterology
Tarik, Soukaina, Samir, Asmae, Ahlame et al., Gastrointestinal manifestations with COVID-19 virus infection: a Moroccan prospective study, Arab J Gastroenterol
Tariq, Saha, Furqan, Hassett, Pardi et al., Prevalence and mortality of COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Mayo Clin Proc
Taxonera, Fisac, Alba, Can COVID-19 trigger de novo inflammatory bowel disease?, Gastroenterology
Varga, Flammer, Steiger, Haberecker, Andermatt et al., Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19, Lancet
Villapol, Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with COVID-19: impact on the gut microbiome, Transl Res
Wang, Wang, Fan, Zhang, Wang et al., Pancreatic injury patterns in patients with coronavirus disease 19 pneumonia, Gastroenterology
Weber, Hellmuth, Scherer, Muenchhoff, Mayerle et al., Liver function test abnormalities at hospital admission are associated with severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a prospective cohort study, Gut
Wu, Guo, Tang, Hong, Zhou et al., Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faecal samples, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
Zhu, Zhang, Li, Yang, Song, A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, N Engl J Med
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop