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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 20% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Bowen et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 4,631 patients in the USA (March 2020 - March 2021) Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.0069) Bowen et al., Open Forum Infectious Di.., Aug 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Reduction in risk of death among patients admitted with COVID-19 between first and second epidemic waves in New York City

Bowen et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofac436
Aug 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 4,631 hospitalized patients in New York, showing higher mortality with remdesivir, and lower mortality with HCQ. Authors suggest that increased mortality during the first epidemic wave was partly due to strain on hospital resources.
Study covers HCQ and remdesivir.
risk of death, 20.0% lower, HR 0.80, p = 0.007, treatment 1,317, control 3,314, Table S2, Cox proportional hazards.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bowen et al., 25 Aug 2022, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 31 March, 2021. Contact:,
This PaperHCQAll
Reduction in risk of death among patients admitted with COVID-19 between first and second epidemic waves in New York City
MD Anthony Bowen, MD Jason Zucker, Yanhan Shen, Simian Huang, Qiheng Yan, Medini K Annavajhala, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Louise Kuhn, Magdalena Sobieszczyk, Delivette Castor
Background: Many regions have experienced successive epidemic waves of COVID-19 since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 with heterogeneous differences in mortality. Elucidating factors differentially associated with mortality between epidemic waves may inform clinical and public health strategies. Methods: We examined clinical and demographic data among patients admitted with COVID-19 during the first (March-August 2020) and second (August 2020-March 2021) epidemic waves at an academic medical center in New York City. Results: Hospitalized patients (N=4631) had lower overall and 30-day in-hospital mortality, defined as death or discharge to hospice, during the second wave (14% and 11%) than the first (22% and 21%). The wave 2 in-hospital mortality decrease persisted after adjusting for several potential confounders. Adjusting for the volume of COVID-19 admissions, a measure of health system strain, accounted for the mortality difference between waves. Several demographic and clinical patient factors were associated with an increased risk of mortality independent of wave; SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold, Do-Not-Intubate status, oxygen requirement, and intensive care unit admission. Conclusions: This work suggests that increased in-hospital mortality rates observed during the first epidemic wave were partly due to strain on hospital resources. Preparations for future epidemics should prioritize evidence-based patient risks, treatment paradigms, and approaches to augment hospital capacity.
may help prepare for future epidemic waves by improving the accuracy of COVID-19 projections and informing public health policy decisions. Furthermore, plans to address future potential pandemics may benefit from prioritizing rapid, systematic methods of studying and developing treatment standards and plans to rapidly adjust hospital capacity and scale up necessary resources. Potential conflicts of interest All authors declare no conflicts of interest potentially related to this work.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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