Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 22% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Bielza et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 630 patients in Spain Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.088) c19hcq.org Bielza et al., J. the American Medical.., Dec 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical characteristics, frailty and mortality of residents with COVID-19 in nursing homes of a region of Madrid

Bielza et al., Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003
Dec 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 630 elderly patients in Spain showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, unadjusted relative risk RR 0.78, p = 0.09. HCQ was used more often with patients that were hospitalized (24% versus 3% use in the nursing homes). Median age 87.
Although the 22% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 25% lower mortality [20‑29%] from meta analysis of the 250 mortality results to date.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of death, 21.5% lower, RR 0.78, p = 0.09, treatment 33 of 91 (36.3%), control 249 of 539 (46.2%), NNT 10.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bielza et al., 11 Dec 2020, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, median age 87.0, 24 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Clinical Characteristics, Frailty, and Mortality of Residents With COVID-19 in Nursing Homes of a Region of Madrid
MD Rafael Bielza, MD Juan Sanz, MD Francisco Zambrana, MD Estefanía Arias, MD Eduardo Malmierca, MD Laura Portillo, MD Israel J Thuissard, MD Ana Lung, MD Marta Neira, María Moral, PhD a, b , María Moral MD g Cristina Andreu-Vázquez, MD h Ana Esteban, MD i Marcela Irma Ramírez, MD j Laura González, MD k Guillermo Carretero, Ricardo Vicente Moreno, MD l Pilar Martínez, MD Javier López, Mar Esteban-Ortega, MD Isabel García, María Antonia Vaquero, MD Ana Linares, MD Ana Gómez-Santana, Jorge Gómez Cerezo
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics, 30-day mortality, and associated factors of patients living in nursing homes (NH) with COVID-19, from March 20 to June 1, 2020. Design: This is a retrospective study. A geriatric hospital-based team acted as a consultant and coordinated the care of older people living in NHs from the hospital. Setting and Participants: A total of 630 patients aged 70 and older with Coronavirus Disease 2019 COVID-19 living in 55 NHs. Methods: A logistic regression was performed to analyze the factors associated with mortality. In addition, Kaplan-Meier curves were applied according to mortality and its associated factors using the logrank Mantel-Cox test. Results: The diagnosis of COVID-19 was mainly made by clinical compatibility (N ¼ 430). Median age was 87 years, 64.6% were women and 45.9% were transferred to be cared for at the hospital. A total of 282 patients died (44.7%) within the 30 days of first attention by the team. A severe form of COVID-19 occurred in 473 patients, and the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (n ¼ 332) and altered level of consciousness (n ¼ 301). According to multiple logistic regression, male sex (P ¼ .019), the Clinical
References
Abrams, Loomer, Gandhi, Grabowski, Characteristics of U.S. nursing homes with COVID-19 cases, J Am Geriatr Soc
Bernabeu-Wittel, Vega, Díaz-Jiménez, Death risk stratification in elderly patients with covid-19. A comparative cohort study in nursing homes outbreaks, Arch Gerontol Geriatr
Bonanad, García-Blas, Tarazona-Santabalbina, The effect of age on mortality in patients with COVID-19: A meta-analysis with 611,583 subjects, J Am Med Dir Assoc
Borobia, Carcas, Arnalich, A cohort of patients with COVID-19 in a major teaching hospital in Europe, J Clin Med
Chen, Zhou, Dong, Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study, Lancet
Cid-Ruzafa, Moreno, Valoración de la discapacidad física: el indice de Barthel, Rev Esp Salud Publica
Comas-Herrera, Zalakaín, Litwin, Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes: early international evidence
Ellis, Wan, Yeung, Complementing chronic frailty assessment at hospital admission with an electronic frailty index (FI-Laboratory) comprising routine blood test results, CMAJ
Farrell, Francis, Brown, Rationing limited healthcare resources in the COVID-19 era and beyond: Ethical considerations regarding older adults, J Am Geriatr Soc
Gordon, Goodman, Achterberg, Commentary: COVID in care homes-challenges and dilemmas in healthcare delivery, Age Ageing
Guan, Ni, Hu, Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med
Hewitt, Carter, Vilches-Moraga, The effect of frailty on survival in patients with COVID-19 (COPE): A multicentre, European, observational cohort study, Lancet Public Health
Huang, Wang, Li, Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, Lancet
Lau-Ng, Caruso, Perls, COVID-19 deaths in long-term care facilities: A critical piece of the pandemic puzzle, J Am Geriatr Soc
Lithander, Neumann, Tenison, COVID-19 in older people: A rapid clinical review, Age Ageing
Liu, Chen, Lin, Han, Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients, J Infect
Liu, Fang, Deng, Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province, Chin Med J (Engl)
Martinez-Peromingo, Serra-Rexach, Long-term care facilities and the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned in Madrid, J Am Geriatr Soc
Mitchell, Maynard, Lyons, The role and response of primary healthcare services in the delivery of palliative care in epidemics and pandemics: A rapid review to inform practice and service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic, Palliat Med
Norman, Stall, Sinha, Typically atypical: COVID-19 presenting as a fall in an older adult, J Am Geriatr Soc
Poloni, Carlos, Cairati, Prevalence and prognostic value of delirium as the initial presentation of COVID-19 in the elderly with dementia: An Italian retrospective study, EClinicalMedicine
Reisberg, Ferris, Leon, Crook, The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia, Am J Psychiatry
Renom-Guiteras, Uhrenfeldt, Meyer, Mann, Assessment tools for determining appropriateness of admission to acute care of persons transferred from long-term care facilities: A systematic review, BMC Geriatr
Richardson, Hirsch, Narasimhan, Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City Area, JAMA
Smet, Mellaerts, Vandewinckele, Frailty and mortality in hospitalized older adults with COVID-19: Retrospective observational study, J Am Med Dir Assoc
Sun, Ning, Tao, Risk factors for mortality in 244 older adults with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective study, J Am Geriatr Soc
Wang, He, Yu, Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: Characteristics and prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up, J Infect
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA
Zhao, Huang, Huang, Mortality in older patients with Covid-19, J Am Geriatr Soc
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003', 'ISSN': ['1525-8610'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003', 'alternative-id': ['S1525861020310525'], 'assertion': [ {'label': 'This article is maintained by', 'name': 'publisher', 'value': 'Elsevier'}, { 'label': 'Article Title', 'name': 'articletitle', 'value': 'Clinical Characteristics, Frailty, and Mortality of Residents With COVID-19 in ' 'Nursing Homes of a Region of Madrid'}, { 'label': 'Journal Title', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'value': 'Journal of the American Medical Directors Association'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version', 'name': 'articlelink', 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003'}, {'label': 'Content Type', 'name': 'content_type', 'value': 'article'}, { 'label': 'Copyright', 'name': 'copyright', 'value': '© 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of AMDA - The Society for ' 'Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine.'}], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5655-6516', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Bielza', 'given': 'Rafael', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Sanz', 'given': 'Juan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zambrana', 'given': 'Francisco', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Arias', 'given': 'Estefanía', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Malmierca', 'given': 'Eduardo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Portillo', 'given': 'Laura', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Thuissard', 'given': 'Israel J.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lung', 'given': 'Ana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Neira', 'given': 'Marta', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Moral', 'given': 'María', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7558-4325', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Andreu-Vázquez', 'given': 'Cristina', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Esteban', 'given': 'Ana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ramírez', 'given': 'Marcela Irma', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'González', 'given': 'Laura', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Carretero', 'given': 'Guillermo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Moreno', 'given': 'Ricardo Vicente', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Martínez', 'given': 'Pilar', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'López', 'given': 'Javier', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Esteban-Ortega', 'given': 'Mar', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'García', 'given': 'Isabel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Vaquero', 'given': 'María Antonia', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Linares', 'given': 'Ana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gómez-Santana', 'given': 'Ana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gómez Cerezo', 'given': 'Jorge', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of the American Medical Directors Association', 'container-title-short': 'Journal of the American Medical Directors Association', 'content-domain': { 'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': [ 'clinicalkey.fr', 'clinicalkey.jp', 'clinicalkey.es', 'clinicalkey.com.au', 'clinicalkey.com', 'jamda.com', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com']}, 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 12]], 'date-time': '2020-12-12T00:14:00Z', 'timestamp': 1607732040000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 7, 13]], 'date-time': '2022-07-13T06:20:37Z', 'timestamp': 1657693237000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 2, 28]], 'date-time': '2024-02-28T16:23:00Z', 'timestamp': 1709137380515}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 49, 'issue': '2', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 1]], 'date-time': '2021-02-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1612137600000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1525861020310525?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1525861020310525?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'page': '245-252.e2', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5', 'article-title': 'Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in ' 'Wuhan, China', 'author': 'Huang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '497', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib1', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary ' 'hospitals in Hubei Province', 'author': 'Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1025', 'journal-title': 'Chin Med J (Engl)', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib2', 'volume': '133', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7', 'article-title': 'Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study', 'author': 'Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '507', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib3', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2002032', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China', 'author': 'Guan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1708', 'journal-title': 'N\xa0Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib4', 'volume': '382', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with ' 'young and middle-aged patients', 'author': 'Liu', 'first-page': 'e14', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Infect', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib5', 'volume': '80', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16649', 'article-title': 'Mortality in older patients with Covid-19', 'author': 'Zhao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1685', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib6', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16533', 'article-title': 'Risk factors for mortality in 244 older adults with COVID-19 in Wuhan, ' 'China: A retrospective study', 'author': 'Sun', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E19', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib7', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.05.045', 'article-title': 'The effect of age on mortality in patients with COVID-19: A ' 'meta-analysis with 611,583 subjects', 'author': 'Bonanad', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '915', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Med Dir Assoc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib8', 'volume': '21', 'year': '2020'}, {'author': 'Comas-Herrera', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib9'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16661', 'article-title': 'Characteristics of U.S. nursing homes with COVID-19 cases', 'author': 'Abrams', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1653', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib10', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ageing/afaa093', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 in older people: A rapid clinical review', 'author': 'Lithander', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '501', 'journal-title': 'Age Ageing', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib11', 'volume': '49', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: Characteristics and ' 'prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up', 'author': 'Wang', 'first-page': '639', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Infect', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib12', 'volume': '80', 'year': '2020'}, { 'first-page': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib13', 'series-title': 'Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when ' 'COVID-19 disease is suspected: interim guidance, 13\xa0March 2020', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.2648', 'article-title': 'Characteristics of and important lessons from the Coronavirus Disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72314 cases ' 'from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention', 'author': 'Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1239', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib14', 'volume': '323', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1590/S1135-57271997000200004', 'article-title': 'Valoración de la discapacidad física: el indice de Barthel', 'author': 'Cid-Ruzafa', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '127', 'journal-title': 'Rev Esp Salud Publica', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib15', 'volume': '71', 'year': '1997'}, { 'DOI': '10.1176/ajp.139.9.1136', 'article-title': 'The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative ' 'dementia', 'author': 'Reisberg', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1136', 'journal-title': 'Am J Psychiatry', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib16', 'volume': '139', 'year': '1982'}, { 'DOI': '10.1503/cmaj.190952', 'article-title': 'Complementing chronic frailty assessment at hospital admission with an ' 'electronic frailty index (FI-Laboratory) comprising routine blood test ' 'results', 'author': 'Ellis', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E3', 'journal-title': 'CMAJ', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib17', 'volume': '192', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16669', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 deaths in long-term care facilities: A\xa0critical piece of ' 'the pandemic puzzle', 'author': 'Lau-Ng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1895', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib18', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16665', 'article-title': 'Long-term care facilities and the COVID-19 pandemic: Lessons learned in ' 'Madrid', 'author': 'Martinez-Peromingo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1920', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib19', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.6775', 'article-title': 'Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 ' 'patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City Area', 'author': 'Richardson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2052', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib20', 'volume': '323', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'A\xa0cohort of patients with COVID-19 in a major teaching hospital in ' 'Europe. J Clin Med', 'author': 'Borobia', 'first-page': '1689', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib21', 'volume': '53', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.archger.2020.104240', 'article-title': 'Death risk stratification in elderly patients with covid-19. A ' 'comparative cohort study in nursing homes outbreaks', 'author': 'Bernabeu-Wittel', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Arch Gerontol Geriatr', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib22', 'volume': '91', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100490', 'article-title': 'Prevalence and prognostic value of delirium as the initial presentation ' 'of COVID-19 in the elderly with dementia: An Italian retrospective ' 'study', 'author': 'Poloni', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib24', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16526', 'article-title': 'Typically atypical: COVID-19 presenting as a fall in an older adult', 'author': 'Norman', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E36', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib25', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.008', 'article-title': 'Frailty and mortality in hospitalized older adults with COVID-19: ' 'Retrospective observational study', 'author': 'De Smet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '928', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Med Dir Assoc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib26', 'volume': '21', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30146-8', 'article-title': 'The effect of frailty on survival in patients with COVID-19 (COPE): A ' 'multicentre, European, observational cohort study', 'author': 'Hewitt', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e444', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Public Health', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib27', 'volume': '5', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/1471-2318-14-80', 'article-title': 'Assessment tools for\xa0determining appropriateness of admission to ' 'acute care of persons transferred from long-term care facilities: A ' 'systematic review', 'author': 'Renom-Guiteras', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '80', 'journal-title': 'BMC Geriatr', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib28', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/jgs.16539', 'article-title': 'Rationing limited healthcare resources in the COVID-19 era and beyond: ' 'Ethical considerations regarding older adults', 'author': 'Farrell', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1143', 'journal-title': 'J\xa0Am Geriatr Soc', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib29', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ageing/afaa113', 'article-title': 'Commentary: COVID in care homes-challenges and dilemmas in healthcare ' 'delivery', 'author': 'Gordon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '701', 'journal-title': 'Age Ageing', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib30', 'volume': '49', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1177/0269216320947623', 'article-title': 'The role and response of primary healthcare services in the delivery of ' 'palliative care in epidemics and pandemics: A rapid review to inform ' 'practice and service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic', 'author': 'Mitchell', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1182', 'journal-title': 'Palliat Med', 'key': '10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.003_bib31', 'volume': '34', 'year': '2020'}], 'reference-count': 30, 'references-count': 30, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1525861020310525'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Health Policy', 'General Medicine', 'General Nursing', 'Geriatrics and Gerontology'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Clinical Characteristics, Frailty, and Mortality of Residents With COVID-19 in Nursing Homes of ' 'a Region of Madrid', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'volume': '22'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit