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Effect of Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine and Azithromycin on COVID-19 Patients' Recovery and Mortality: Evidence from a Hospital Based Retrospective Cohort Study Conducted in Burkina Faso

Baguiya et al., Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510192
Feb 2021  
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Mortality 44% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, PSM + 24hr exc. 58% Recovery 3% Recovery, PSM + 24hr exc. 22% HCQ for COVID-19  Baguiya et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 208 patients in Burkina Faso (March - April 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.14) Baguiya et al., J. Infectious Diseases.., Feb 2021 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments.
Retrospective 208 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Burkina Faso showing lower mortality with HCQ/CQ+AZ treatment, without statistical significance. There was no difference for recovery.
risk of death, 44.0% lower, HR 0.56, p = 0.14, treatment 150, control 58, adjusted per study, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards, day 12.
risk of death, 58.0% lower, HR 0.42, p = 0.11, treatment 150, control 58, adjusted per study, mortality within 24 hours excluded, propensity score matching, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards, day 12, Table S3.
risk of no recovery, 3.0% lower, HR 0.97, p = 0.91, treatment 150, control 58, adjusted per study, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards, day 12.
risk of no recovery, 22.0% lower, HR 0.78, p = 0.91, treatment 150, control 58, adjusted per study, mortality within 24 hours excluded, propensity score matching, multivariable, Cox proportional hazards, day 12, Table S3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Baguiya et al., 15 Feb 2021, retrospective, Burkina Faso, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period 9 March, 2020 - 23 April, 2020.
This PaperHCQAll
Effect of Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine and Azithromycin on COVID-19 Patients' Recovery and Mortality: Evidence from a Hospital Based Retrospective Cohort Study Conducted in Burkina Faso
Baguiya Adama, Poda Armel, Cissé Kadari, Sondo Apoline K, Ouedraogo Boukary, Ouedraogo Abdoul Risgou, Tiono Alfred B, Kaboré Pierre, Bicaba Brice W, Zoungrana Jacques, Sourabié Adama, Fofana Souleymane, Kaboré Flavien, Sanou Adama, Kouanda Séni
Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510192
Background: Many countries have adopted hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) and azithromycin (AZ) for the treatment of COVID-19 patients at the beginning of the pandemic and are still using them. The objective of this study was to measure the efficacy of CQ or HCQ and combined with AZ on patients' survival and recovery in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based retrospective cohort study using routine data from all the hospitals involved in the COVID-19 response in Burkina Faso. All patients treated before March 26, who did not receive the combination constituted the control group and those treated from March 26 to April 23, received CQ or HCQ, combined with AZ and constituted the treatment group. We estimated the mortality and recovery rate, and the treatment effect at day-12 with adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) along with their 95% confidence interval (CI) using Cox's proportional hazard regression models. Results: A total of 150 and 58 patients were included in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The mortality rates at day-12 were 18% in the treatment group versus 31% in the control group and were significantly different (HR = 0.47; 95%CI = [0.25-0.86]). After adjustment, we found no difference between treatment and control groups (aHR = 0.56, 95%CI = [0.27-1.19]). The recovery rates were 64.2% and 60% in the treatment and control group respectively but were not statistically different (HR = 1.08; 95%IC = [0.67-1.74]). Conclusion: The treatment with CQ or HCQ combined with AZ had no independent effect on in-hospital COVID-19 mortality and recovery rate in Burkina Faso.
Authors Contribution AB, SK, and AKS designed the study; KC performed data processing; KC, AB, AP, and SK performed data analysis and interpreted the results; AB proposed the first draft; all other authors (AB, AP, KC, AKS, BO, ARO, ABT, PK, BWB, JZ, AS, SF, FK, AS, SK) contributed to the interpretation of the results, reviewed the manuscript and approved the final draft. Conflict of Interest None declared. Ethical Approval This study conformed to ethical guidelines. The pro-
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Late treatment
is less effective
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