Clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases
Alzahrani et al.
, Clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases
, Rheumatology International , doi:10.1007/s00296-021-04857-9
Retrospective 47 rheumatic disease patients not finding significant differences with HCQ.
risk of death, 58.7% lower, RR 0.41, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 14 (0.0%), control 1 of 33 (3.0%), NNT 33, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 81.0% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.54, treatment 0 of 14 (0.0%), control 3 of 33 (9.1%), NNT 11, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of severe case, 32.7% lower, RR 0.67, p = 0.70, treatment 2 of 14 (14.3%), control 7 of 33 (21.2%), NNT 14.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alzahrani et al., 15 Apr 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
Rheumatology International (2021) 41:1097–1103
Clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID‑19 in patients
with rheumatic diseases
Zeyad A. Alzahrani1,2,4
· Khalid Abdullah Alghamdi2,4
· Ahmed Saeed Almaqati3,4
Received: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published online: 15 April 2021
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021
This study aimed to assess the baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in
patients with rheumatic diseases and identify the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a retrospective study in a tertiary care center conducted through the period between March 2020 and November 2020 and included
all adult patients with rheumatic diseases who tested positive on the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. We
assessed the patients’ demographic data, history of rheumatic disease, COVID-19 symptoms and experimental treatment,
if any, their disease course, and outcome. In all, 47 patients were included, and most were females. The commonest rheumatic diseases were rheumatoid arthritis (53.2%), followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (21.3%), and psoriatic arthritis
(10.6%). Methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine were the most commonly used disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in
36.1% and 25.5%, respectively. Out of 47 patients, 48.9% required hospitalization with a median hospital stay of 7 days.
Severe COVID-19 pneumonia, defined as clinical signs of pneumonia plus one of the following: respiratory rate > 30 bpm,
severe respiratory distress, or oxygen saturation < 90% in room air was observed in 19.1% of the patients, and one patient died.
We found that elderly patients with a mean age of 65.3 years were more likely to develop severe COVID-19 pneumonia and
that was statistically significant. Our study showed that elderly patients with a mean age of 65 years and having rheumatic
diseases had an increased risk of hospital admission and development of severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
Keywords COVID-19 · Rheumatic diseases · Antirheumatic drugs
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.