Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -52% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Alhamlan et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Saudi Arabia Higher mortality with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.58) Alhamlan et al., medRxiv, July 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics in Individuals with Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia

Alhamlan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.07.13.21260428
Jul 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing higher mortality with most treatments although not reaching statistical significance. Confounding by indication, time, or other factors is likely (a 19x higher risk with lopinavir/ritonavir and 3.5x higher risk with azithromycin is not supported by other studies for example). The number of patients treated with HCQ is not provided.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely; substantial confounding by time likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
risk of death, 52.0% higher, HR 1.52, p = 0.57.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alhamlan et al., 16 Jul 2021, retrospective, database analysis, Saudi Arabia, preprint, 10 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics in Individuals with Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia
Fatimah S Alhamlan, Reem S Almaghrabi, Edward B Devol, Anwar B Alotaibi, Saleh M Alageel, Dalia A Obeid, Basem M Alraddadi, Sahar I Althawadi, Maysoon S Mutabagani, Ahmed A Al-Qahtani
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the catastrophic coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic. This study aimed to provide epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia and to determine whether characteristic profiles differ between patients who are symptomatic vs. asymptomatic for the disease. The first 492 consecutive patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Saudi Arabia between March and September 2020 were included in this study. An electronic case report form developed using REDCap was used to collect data for each patient, including demographic characteristics, virus exposure (travel history, and human and animal contact), vaccination history, comorbidities, signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiographic reports, cardiac workup, medications, treatment regimens, and patient outcome. This patient cohort was 54% male, with 20.4% aged more than 60 years, 19.9% aged 31 to 40 years, and 17% aged 41 to 50 years. Most patients (79.2%) were symptomatic. Variables that significantly differed between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were age, blood oxygen saturation percentage, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, neutrophil to lymphocyte (NTL) ratio, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level. Asymptomatic patients were mostly younger, with lower body mass index and ALT and AST levels but higher lymphocyte counts, NTL ratio, and CD4, CD8, natural killer cell, IgG, and IgM levels. The median incubation period reported for this cohort was 16 day, with upper and lower 95% quartiles of 27 and 10 days, respectively. Factors associated with increased risk of mortality were age (older than 42 years) and comorbidities, including specifically diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients who were not given an antiviral regimen were associated with better prognosis than patients who received an antiviral regimen (HR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.011-0.25). Similar to countries worldwide, Saudi Arabia has explored treatment options to save the lives of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analyses will inform clinicians as well as policy makers to adopt the best strategies for SARS-CoV-2 infection management and treatment options. INTRODUCTION
Abbott, Hellewell, Munday, Funk, The transmissibility of novel Coronavirus in the early stages of the 2019-20 outbreak in Wuhan: Exploring initial point-source exposure sizes and durations using scenario analysis, Wellcome Open Res
Alene, Yismaw, Assemie, Ketema, Gietaneh et al., Serial interval and incubation period of COVID-19: a systematic review and metaanalysis, BMC Infect Dis
Axfors, Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials, Nat Commun
Bwire, Coronavirus: Why Men are More Vulnerable to Covid-19 Than Women?, SN Compr Clin Med
Cao, A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Chen, Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet
Consortium, Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 -Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results, N Engl J Med
Cori, Ferguson, Fraser, Cauchemez, A new framework and software to estimate time-varying reproduction numbers during epidemics, Am J Epidemiol
Di Castelnuovo, Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Darunavir/Cobicistat in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Findings From the Multicenter Italian CORIST Study, Front Med (Lausanne)
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
Garcia, Gutierrez, Garcia Bascones, Relationship between obesity, diabetes and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients, Med Clin (Engl Ed)
Group, Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Group, Lopinavir-ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, Lancet
Guan, Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China, N Engl J Med
Hagg, Age, Frailty, and Comorbidity as Prognostic Factors for Short-Term Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Geriatric Care, J Am Med Dir Assoc
Health, Saudi MoH Protocol for Patients Suspected of/Confirmed with COVID-19
Hung, Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial, Lancet
Luzi, Radaelli, Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic, Acta Diabetol
Moh, None
Nishiura, Linton, Akhmetzhanov, Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections, Int J Infect Dis
O. B. O. T, Network, The, Clinical characteristics and day-90 outcomes of 4244 critically ill adults with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study, Intensive Care Med
Obied, Alhamlan, Al-Qahtani, Al-Ahdal, Containment of COVID-19: the unprecedented response of Saudi Arabia, J Infect Dev Ctries
Onder, Rezza, Brusaferro, Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy, JAMA
Shi, Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet Infect Dis
Snow, Creation and maintenance of a table for assessment of evolving evidence for COVID-19-related treatments, Am J Health Syst Pharm
Takla, Jeevaratnam, Chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and COVID-19: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of efficacy and safety, Saudi Pharm J
Wang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Who, Coronavirus
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA
Zhu, A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019, N Engl J Med
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop