Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality in rheumatic patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or other conventional DMARDs in Italy

Alegiani et al., Rheumatology, doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keab348
Apr 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Mortality -8% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization 18% Mortality (b) -19% Hospitalization (b) 12% HCQ for COVID-19  Alegiani et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Italy Lower hospitalization with HCQ (p=0.026) c19hcq.org Alegiani et al., Rheumatology, April 2021 FavorsHCQ Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective database analysis case control study of rheumatic patients. When compared with other cDMARDs, HCQ users had significantly lower hospitalization, however there was no significant difference in mortality. Results differ significantly from previous studies, for example showing mortality OR 0.94 [0.83-1.06] for patients with rheumatic disease and mortality OR 0.88 [0.74-1.05] for patients with RA/SLE. Other research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall.
risk of death, 8.0% higher, OR 1.08, p = 0.64, HCQ vs. other cDMARDs, RR approximated with OR.
risk of hospitalization, 18.0% lower, OR 0.82, p = 0.03, HCQ vs. other cDMARDs, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 19.0% higher, OR 1.19, p = 0.32, HCQ vs. MTX, RR approximated with OR.
risk of hospitalization, 12.0% lower, OR 0.88, p = 0.17, HCQ vs. MTX, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alegiani et al., 15 Apr 2021, retrospective, case control, database analysis, Italy, peer-reviewed, 16 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Risk of coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization and mortality in rheumatic patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or other conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in Italy
Stefania Spila Alegiani, Salvatore Crisafulli, Paolo Giorgi Rossi, Pamela Mancuso, Carlo Salvarani, Fabiola Atzeni, Rosa Gini, Ursula Kirchmayer, Valeria Belleudi, Peter Konstantin Kurotschka, Olivia Leoni, Monica Ludergnani, Eliana Ferroni, Susanna Baracco, Marco Massari, Gianluca Trifirò
Rheumatology, doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keab348
Objectives. To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality. Methods. This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated. Results. A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes. Conclusion. HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.
Supplementary data Supplementary data are available at Rheumatology online.
References
Abella, Jolkovsky, Biney, Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo for preexposure SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis among health care workers, JAMA Intern Med
Akiyama, Hamdeh, Micic, Sakuraba, Prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune diseases: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Ann Rheum Dis, doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218946
Ben-Zvi, Kivity, Langevitz, Shoenfeld, Hydroxychloroquine: from malaria to autoimmunity, Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
Bonam, Muller, Bayry, Klionsky, Autophagy as an emerging target for COVID-19: lessons from an old friend, chloroquine, Autophagy
Boulware, Pullen, Bangdiwala, A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis for Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Brenner, Ungaro, Gearry, Corticosteroids, but not TNF antagonists, are associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: results from an international registry, Gastroenterology
Cavalcanti, Zampieri, Rosa, Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mildto-moderate Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Ferroni, Giorgi, Spila, Survival of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in northern Italy: a population-based cohort study by the ITA-COVID19 Network, Clin Epidemiol
Gandhi, Lynch, Del Rio, Mild or moderate Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Gentry, Humphrey, Thind, Long-term hydroxychloroquine use in patients with rheumatic conditions and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Rheumatol
Gianfrancesco, Hyrich, Hyrich, Characteristics associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 in people with rheumatic disease: data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physicianreported registry, Ann Rheum Dis
Haberman, Castillo, COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a prospective study on the effects of comorbidities and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs on clinical outcomes, Arthritis Rheumatol
Han, Pham, Xu, Quan, Mesple et al., Antimalarial drugs and their metabolites are potent Zika virus inhibitors, J Med Virol
Jung, Kim, Kim, Effect of hydroxychloroquine preexposure on infection with SARS-CoV-2 in rheumatic disease patients: a population-based cohort study, Clin Microbiol Infect
Kaptein, Jacobs, Langendries, Favipiravir at high doses has potent antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters, whereas hydroxychloroquine lacks activity, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Kashour, Riaz, Garbati, Efficacy of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients: Risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality in RA patients treated with HCQ or cDMARDs https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Antimicrob Chemother
Lewis, Chaudhuri, Alshamsi, The efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 prophylaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials, PLoS One
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Madrid, Chopra, Manger, A systematic screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of biological threat agents, PLoS One
Massari, Alegiani, Da, Menniti, TheShinISS": an open-source tool for conducting distributed analyses within pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies, Boll Epidemiol Naz
Mikuls, Johnson, Fraenkel, American College of Rheumatology guidance for the management of rheumatic disease in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: version 1, Arthritis Rheumatol
Mitja, Corbacho-Monne, Ubals, A clusterrandomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for prevention of Covid-19, N Engl J Med
Mitja, Corbacho-Monne, Ubals, Hydroxychloroquine for early treatment of adults with mild Covid-19: a randomized-controlled trial, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1009
Nørga ˚rd, Nielsen, Knudsen, Hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients treated with selected immunosuppressant and immunomodulating agents, compared to the general population: a Danish cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol
Rajasingham, Bangdiwala, Nicol, Hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers: a randomized trial, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1571
Rentsch, Devito, Mackenna, Effect of preexposure use of hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19 mortality: a population-based cohort study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus using the OpenSAFELY platform, Lancet Rheumatol
Sachdeva, Shah, Ziv, Leshem, Dodiuk-Gad, Risks of hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 prophylaxis, J Am Acad Dermatol
Schrezenmeier, Do ¨rner T, Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology, Nat Rev Rheumatol
Skipper, Pastick, Engen, Hydroxychloroquine in nonhospitalized adults with early COVID-19, Ann Intern Med
Spila, None
Trifiro, Massari, Da, Renin-angiotensinaldosterone system inhibitors and risk of death in patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective Italian cohort study of 43,000 patients, Drug Saf
Winthrop, Novosad, Baddley, Opportunistic infections and biologic therapies in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: consensus recommendations for infection reporting during clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance, Ann Rheum Dis
Yang, Lai, Huang, Tsai, Wang, Corticosteroid dose and the risk of opportunistic infection in a national systemic lupus erythematosus cohort, Lupus
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
Zang, Han, He, Shi, Li, Hydroxychloroquine use and progression or prognosis of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 9, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-09-01T16:31:50Z', 'timestamp': 1693585910768}, 'reference-count': 37, 'publisher': 'Oxford University Press (OUP)', 'issue': 'SI', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 15]], 'date-time': '2021-04-15T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1618444800000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model'}], 'funder': [{'name': 'Italian National Institute of Health'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 9]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Objectives</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>To ascertain if the use of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ)/cloroquine(CLQ) ' 'and other conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) and rheumatic diseases per se may be associated with ' 'COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>This case–control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was ' 'conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. ' 'Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. The risk of ' 'COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression ' 'analysis comparing HCQ/CLQ vs MTX, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. The ' 'presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was ' 'investigated.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Results</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>A total of 1275 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched ' 'to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of MTX, no association between HCQ/CLQ ' 'monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.69, 1.00)] or ' 'mortality [OR 1.19 (95% CI 0.85, 1.67)] was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing ' 'HCQ/CLQ use with the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not ' 'associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for ' 'recent use of either MTX monotherapy [OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05, 1.34)] or other cDMARDs [OR 1.21 ' '(95% CI 1.08, 1.36)] vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with ' 'COVID-19-related outcomes.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:sec>\n' ' <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title>\n' ' <jats:p>HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a ' 'protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. The use of other cDMARDs was associated ' 'with an increased risk when compared with non-use and, if concomitantly used with ' 'glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably due to immunosuppressive action.</jats:p>\n' ' </jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1093/rheumatology/keab348', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 13]], 'date-time': '2021-04-13T18:52:28Z', 'timestamp': 1618339948000}, 'page': 'SI25-SI36', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 11, 'title': 'Risk of coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization and mortality in rheumatic patients treated ' 'with hydroxychloroquine or other conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in Italy', 'prefix': '10.1093', 'volume': '60', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Stefania', 'family': 'Spila Alegiani', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Pharmacoepidemiology Unit, National Centre for Drug Research and ' 'Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Salvatore', 'family': 'Crisafulli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and ' 'Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy'}, {'name': 'Italian Society of Pharmacology, Milan, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Paolo', 'family': 'Giorgi Rossi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Epidemiology Unit, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale-IRCCS di ' 'Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Pamela', 'family': 'Mancuso', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Epidemiology Unit, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale-IRCCS di ' 'Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Carlo', 'family': 'Salvarani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Unit of Rheumatology, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio ' 'Emilia, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological ' 'Sciences with Interest in Transplant, Oncology and Regenerative ' 'Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, ' 'Emilia-Romagna, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Fabiola', 'family': 'Atzeni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Rheumatology Unit, Department of Experimental and Internal ' 'Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Rosa', 'family': 'Gini', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Agenzia Regionale di Sanità della Toscana, Florence, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Ursula', 'family': 'Kirchmayer', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Epidemiology ASL Roma 1, Lazio Regional Health ' 'Service, Rome, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Valeria', 'family': 'Belleudi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Epidemiology ASL Roma 1, Lazio Regional Health ' 'Service, Rome, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Peter Konstantin', 'family': 'Kurotschka', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Faculty of ' 'Medicine and Surgery, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy'}, {'name': 'Regional Health Trust of Sardinia Region, Cagliari, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Olivia', 'family': 'Leoni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Epidemiology Observatory–Department of Health of Lombardy ' 'Region, Milan, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Monica', 'family': 'Ludergnani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Epidemiology Observatory–Department of Health of Lombardy ' 'Region, Milan, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Eliana', 'family': 'Ferroni', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Azienda Zero of the Veneto Region, Padua, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Susanna', 'family': 'Baracco', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'Azienda Zero of the Veneto Region, Padua, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Marco', 'family': 'Massari', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Pharmacoepidemiology Unit, National Centre for Drug Research and ' 'Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy'}]}, { 'given': 'Gianluca', 'family': 'Trifirò', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ {'name': 'Italian Society of Pharmacology, Milan, Italy'}, { 'name': 'Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of ' 'Verona, Verona, Italy'}]}, {'name': 'the ITA-COVID-19 Network', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '286', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 15]]}, 'reference': [ {'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B1'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1182', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.25440', 'article-title': 'Antimalarial drugs and their metabolites are potent Zika virus ' 'inhibitors', 'volume': '91', 'author': 'Han', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e60579', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0060579', 'article-title': 'A systematic screen of FDA-approved drugs for inhibitors of biological ' 'threat agents', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Madrid', 'year': '2013', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '16', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is ' 'effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Liu', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Cell Discov'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '732', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Yao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '26955', 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.2014441117', 'article-title': 'Favipiravir at high doses has potent antiviral activity in ' 'SARS-CoV-2–infected hamsters, whereas hydroxychloroquine lacks activity', 'volume': '117', 'author': 'Kaptein', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Proc Natl Acad Sci USA'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '155', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41584-020-0372-x', 'article-title': 'Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: ' 'implications for rheumatology', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'Schrezenmeier', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Rheumatol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '145', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12016-010-8243-x', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine: from malaria to autoimmunity', 'volume': '42', 'author': 'Ben-Zvi', 'year': '2012', 'journal-title': 'Clin Rev Allergy Immunol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2260', 'DOI': '10.1080/15548627.2020.1779467', 'article-title': 'Autophagy as an emerging target for COVID-19: lessons from an old ' 'friend, chloroquine', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'Bonam', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Autophagy'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '775', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00210-020-01964-5', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine use and progression or prognosis of COVID-19: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '394', 'author': 'Zang', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '30', 'DOI': '10.1093/jac/dkaa403', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 patients: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis', 'volume': '76', 'author': 'Kashour', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Antimicrob Chemother'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1757', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMcp2009249', 'article-title': 'Mild or moderate Covid-19', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Gandhi', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B13', 'first-page': '2030', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Engl', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2041', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2019014', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate ' 'Covid-19', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Cavalcanti', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '623', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-4207', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in nonhospitalized adults with early COVID-19', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Skipper', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B16', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine for early treatment of adults with mild Covid-19: a ' 'randomized-controlled trial', 'author': 'Mitjà', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '517', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2016638', 'article-title': 'A randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine as postexposure prophylaxis ' 'for Covid-19', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Boulware', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '195', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6319', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine vs placebo for pre-exposure ' 'SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis among health care workers', 'volume': '181', 'author': 'Abella', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '417', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2021801', 'article-title': 'A cluster-randomized trial of hydroxychloroquine for prevention of ' 'Covid-19', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'Mitjà', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B20', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine as pre-exposure prophylaxis for coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) in healthcare workers: a randomized trial', 'author': 'Rajasingham', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e689', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30305-2', 'article-title': 'Long-term hydroxychloroquine use in patients with rheumatic conditions ' 'and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a retrospective cohort study', 'volume': '2', 'author': 'Gentry', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Rheumatol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '611', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cmi.2020.12.003', 'article-title': 'Effect of hydroxychloroquine preexposure on infection with SARS-CoV-2 ' 'in rheumatic disease patients: a population-based cohort study', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'Jung', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infect'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e19', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30378-7', 'article-title': 'Effect of pre-exposure use of hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19 mortality: ' 'a population-based cohort study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis ' 'or systemic lupus erythematosus using the OpenSAFELY platform', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Rentsch', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Rheumatol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e73', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jaad.2020.04.111', 'article-title': 'Risks of hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 prophylaxis', 'volume': '83', 'author': 'Sachdeva', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Am Acad Dermatol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B25', 'article-title': 'Prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with ' 'autoimmune diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Akiyama', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Rheum Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B26', 'first-page': '39', 'article-title': '“TheShinISS”: an open-source tool for conducting distributed analyses ' 'within pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies', 'volume': '1', 'author': 'Massari', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Boll Epidemiol Naz'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1297', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40264-020-00994-5', 'article-title': 'Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of death in ' 'patients hospitalised with COVID-19: a retrospective Italian cohort ' 'study of 43,000 patients', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'Trifirò', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Drug Saf'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1337', 'DOI': '10.2147/CLEP.S271763', 'article-title': 'Survival of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in northern Italy: a ' 'population-based cohort study by the ITA-COVID19 Network', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'Ferroni', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Epidemiol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B29', 'first-page': 'e0244778', 'article-title': 'The efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 prophylaxis: ' 'a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials', 'volume-title': 'PLoS One', 'author': 'Lewis', 'year': '2021'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2111', 'DOI': '10.1111/bcp.14622', 'article-title': 'Hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients treated with selected ' 'immunosuppressant and immunomodulating agents, compared to the general ' 'population: a Danish cohort study', 'volume': '87', 'author': 'Nørgård', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Br J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2107', 'DOI': '10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207841', 'article-title': 'Opportunistic infections and biologic therapies in immune-mediated ' 'inflammatory diseases: consensus recommendations for infection ' 'reporting during clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance', 'volume': '74', 'author': 'Winthrop', 'year': '2015', 'journal-title': 'Ann Rheum Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '859', 'DOI': '10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217871', 'article-title': 'Characteristics associated with hospitalisation for COVID-19 in people ' 'with rheumatic disease: data from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology ' 'Alliance physician-reported registry', 'volume': '79', 'author': 'Gianfrancesco', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Rheum Dis'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '481', 'DOI': '10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.032', 'article-title': 'Corticosteroids, but not TNF antagonists, are associated with adverse ' 'COVID-19 outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: results ' 'from an international registry', 'volume': '159', 'author': 'Brenner', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Gastroenterology'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1981', 'DOI': '10.1002/art.41456', 'article-title': 'COVID-19 in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a prospective study ' 'on the effects of comorbidities and disease-modifying antirheumatic ' 'drugs on clinical outcomes', 'volume': '72', 'author': 'Haberman', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Arthritis Rheumatol'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1819', 'DOI': '10.1177/0961203318792352', 'article-title': 'Corticosteroid dose and the risk of opportunistic infection in a ' 'national systemic lupus erythematosus cohort', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'Yang', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Lupus'}, { 'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e1', 'DOI': '10.1002/art.41596', 'article-title': 'American College of Rheumatology guidance for the management of ' 'rheumatic disease in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: ' 'version 1', 'volume': '73', 'author': 'Mikuls', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Arthritis Rheumatol'}, {'key': '2021101018332747100_keab348-B37'}], 'container-title': 'Rheumatology', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/rheumatology/keab348/38657160/keab348.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'am', 'intended-application': 'syndication'}, { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article-pdf/60/SI/SI25/40544655/keab348.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'syndication'}, { 'URL': 'http://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article-pdf/60/SI/SI25/40544655/keab348.pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 11]], 'date-time': '2021-10-11T02:53:00Z', 'timestamp': 1633920780000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article/60/SI/SI25/6226505'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 15]]}, 'references-count': 37, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': 'SI', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 15]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 9]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab348', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1462-0324', '1462-0332'], 'subject': ['Pharmacology (medical)', 'Rheumatology'], 'published-other': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 1]]}, 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 4, 15]]}}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit