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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 99% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Ahmed et al.  Prophylaxis Is pre-exposure prophylaxis with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 100 patients in Saudi Arabia Fewer cases with HCQ (not stat. sig., p=0.079) Ahmed et al., BioMed Research Int., Nov 2021 Favors HCQ Favors control

Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914
Nov 2021  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing reduced risk of cases with HCQ prophylaxis.
Study covers vitamin D and HCQ.
risk of case, 99.3% lower, OR 0.007, p = 0.08, treatment 0 of 50 (0.0%) cases, 13 of 50 (26.0%) controls, NNT 1.7, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ahmed et al., 23 Nov 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Amira S Ahmed, Wejdan S Alotaibi, Maha A Aldubayan, Ahmad H Alhowail, Amal H Al-Najjar, Sridevi Chigurupati, Rehab M Elgharabawy
BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914
Objectives. This study screened for factors affecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, appraised vitamin D's efficacy in preventing COVID-19, and assessed the effects of clinical characteristics, glycemic status, vitamin D, and hydroxychloroquine administration on COVID-19's progression and severity in T1DM patients. Methods. This retrospective research on 150 adults was conducted at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Participants were allocated to three groups (50/group): control, T1DM, and T1DM with COVID-19. Participants' fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), complete blood count, vitamin D, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, D-dimer, liver and kidney function, and hydroxychloroquine treatment were retrieved and analyzed. Results. The percentages of comorbidities and not taking hydroxychloroquine were significantly higher among T1DM patients with COVID-19 than patients with T1DM only. Mean vitamin D level was significantly lower in T1DM with COVID-19 patients than in the other two groups. Vitamin D showed a significant negative correlation with LDH, CRP, ESR, ferritin, and D-dimer, which was the most reliable predictor of COVID-19 severity in T1DM patients. Conclusion. Comorbidities and vitamin D deficiency are risk factors for COVID-19 in patients with T1DM. Patients who do not take hydroxychloroquine and have higher FBG and HbA1c levels are vulnerable to COVID-19. Vitamin D may be useful for preventing COVID-19 in T1DM patients. Comorbidities, higher FBG and HbA1c levels, not taking hydroxychloroquine, and vitamin D inadequacy elevate COVID-19 progression and severity in patients with T1DM.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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