Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Ahmed et al.
, Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
, BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914
Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing reduced risk of cases with HCQ prophylaxis.
risk of case, 99.3% lower, OR 0.007, p = 0.08, treatment 0 of 50 (0.0%) cases,
13 of 50 (26.0%) controls, NNT 1.7, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ahmed et al., 23 Nov 2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
BioMed Research International
Volume 2021, Article ID 1676914, 9 pages
Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of
COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Amira S. Ahmed ,1,2 Wejdan S. Alotaibi,3 Maha A. Aldubayan ,1 Ahmad H. Alhowail ,1
Amal H. Al-Najjar ,4 Sridevi Chigurupati ,5 and Rehab M. Elgharabawy 1,6
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Hormones Department, Medical Research and Clinical Studies Institute, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Drug and Poison Information Specialist, Pharmacy Services, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
Correspondence should be addressed to Amira S. Ahmed; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 15 August 2021; Revised 8 October 2021; Accepted 23 October 2021; Published 23 November 2021
Academic Editor: San-Ji Gao
Copyright © 2021 Amira S. Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
Objectives. This study screened for factors aﬀecting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence in type 1 diabetes mellitus
(T1DM) patients, appraised vitamin D’s eﬃcacy in preventing COVID-19, and assessed the eﬀects of clinical characteristics,
glycemic status, vitamin D, and hydroxychloroquine administration on COVID-19’s progression and severity in T1DM
patients. Methods. This retrospective research on 150 adults was conducted at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA.
Participants were allocated to three groups (50/group): control, T1DM, and T1DM with COVID-19. Participants’ fasting blood
glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), complete blood count, vitamin D, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte
sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time,
D-dimer, liver and kidney function, and hydroxychloroquine treatment were retrieved and analyzed. Results. The percentages of
comorbidities and not taking hydroxychloroquine were signiﬁcantly higher among T1DM patients with COVID-19 than
patients with T1DM only. Mean vitamin D level was signiﬁcantly lower in T1DM with COVID-19 patients than in the other
two groups. Vitamin D showed a signiﬁcant negative correlation with LDH, CRP, ESR, ferritin, and D-dimer, which was the
most reliable predictor of COVID-19 severity in T1DM patients. Conclusion. Comorbidities and vitamin D deﬁciency are risk
factors for COVID-19 in patients with T1DM. Patients who do not take hydroxychloroquine and have higher FBG and HbA1c
levels are vulnerable to COVID-19. Vitamin D may be useful for preventing COVID-19 in T1DM patients. Comorbidities,
higher FBG and HbA1c levels, not taking hydroxychloroquine, and vitamin D inadequacy elevate COVID-19 progression and
severity in patients with T1DM.
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