AbdelGhaffar et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT
Prediction of mortality in hospitalized Egyptian patients with Coronavirus disease-2019: A multicenter retrospective study
et al., PLOS ONE,
Retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment in unadjusted results. According to the official treatment protocol, HCQ was recommended with higher risk and/or more serious cases.
risk of death, , treatment 0 of 238 (0.0%), control 900 of 3,474 (25.9%), NNT 3.9, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
99.9% lower, RR 0.001, p < 0.001
Effect extraction follows
pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
AbdelGhaffar et al., 11 Jan 2022, retrospective, Egypt, peer-reviewed, 17 authors, study period April 2020 - July 2020.
Abstract: PLOS ONE
Prediction of mortality in hospitalized
Egyptian patients with Coronavirus disease2019: A multicenter retrospective study
Muhammad M. AbdelGhaffar1,2, Dalia Omran ID2,3, Ahmed Elgebaly4, Eshak I. Bahbah4,
Shimaa Afify5, Mohamed AlSoda2, Mohamed El-Shiekh6, Enass S. ElSayed7, Soha
S. Shaaban8, Samah AbdelHafez1, Khaled Elkelany9, Ayman A. Eltayar10, Omnia S. Ali11,
Lamiaa Kamal12, Ahmed M. Heiba1,13, Ahmad El Askary14, Hend Ibrahim Shousha ID3*
Citation: AbdelGhaffar MM, Omran D, Elgebaly A,
Bahbah EI, Afify S, AlSoda M, et al. (2022)
Prediction of mortality in hospitalized Egyptian
patients with Coronavirus disease-2019: A
multicenter retrospective study. PLoS ONE 17(1):
Editor: Prasenjit Mitra, Post Graduate Institute of
Medical Education and Research, INDIA
Received: March 11, 2021
Accepted: December 22, 2021
Published: January 11, 2022
Copyright: © 2022 AbdelGhaffar et al. This is an
open access article distributed under the terms of
the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided the original
author and source are credited.
Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are
within the paper.
Funding: The authors acknowledge the support of
Taif University Researchers Supporting Project
number (TURSP-2020/82), Taif University, Taif,
1 Gastroenterology & Infectious Diseases Department, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt,
2 General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI), Cairo, Egypt, 3 Endemic medicine
department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 4 Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University,
Cairo, Egypt, 5 Gastroenterology Department, National Hepatology and Tropical medicine Research
Institute, Cairo, Egypt, 6 Chest unit, Matareya Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, 7 Nephrology Department,
Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, 8 Rheumatology department, El Matareya Educational
Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, 9 Pediatric departement, Shebin Elkom Teaching Hospital, Shebin Elkom, Egypt,
10 Intensive care Department, Damanhour Teaching Hospital, Damanhour, Egypt, 11 Clinical and chemical
pathology department, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, 12 Clinical and chemical pathology
department, Sahel General Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, 13 Internal Medicine Department, National Research
Centre, Cairo, Egypt, 14 Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences,
Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia
We aimed to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics associated
with mortality among hospitalized Egyptian patients with COVID-19. A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted on all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID19 cases admitted through the period from April to July 2020. A generalized linear model
was reconstructed with covariates based on predictor’s statistical significance and clinically
relevance. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by using stepwise logistic regression modeling. A total of 3712 hospitalized patients were included; of them, 900 deaths were recorded
(24.2%). Compared to survived patients, non-survived patients were more likely to be older
than 60 years (65.7%), males (53.6%) diabetic (37.6%), hypertensive (37.2%), and..
is less effective
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