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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 100% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  AbdelGhaffar et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 3,712 patients in Egypt (April - July 2020) Lower mortality with HCQ (p<0.000001) AbdelGhaffar et al., PLOS ONE, January 2022 Favors HCQ Favors control

Prediction of mortality in hospitalized Egyptian patients with Coronavirus disease-2019: A multicenter retrospective study

AbdelGhaffar et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0262348
Jan 2022  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 3,712 hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment in unadjusted results. According to the official treatment protocol, HCQ was recommended with higher risk and/or more serious cases.
risk of death, 99.9% lower, RR 0.001, p < 0.001, treatment 0 of 238 (0.0%), control 900 of 3,474 (25.9%), NNT 3.9, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
AbdelGhaffar et al., 11 Jan 2022, retrospective, Egypt, peer-reviewed, 17 authors, study period April 2020 - July 2020.
This PaperHCQAll
Prediction of mortality in hospitalized Egyptian patients with Coronavirus disease-2019: A multicenter retrospective study
Muhammad M Abdelghaffar, Dalia Omran, Ahmed Elgebaly, Eshak I Bahbah, Shimaa Afify, Mohamed Alsoda, Mohamed El-Shiekh, Enass S Elsayed, Soha S Shaaban, Samah Abdelhafez, Khaled Elkelany, Ayman A Eltayar, Omnia S Ali, Lamiaa Kamal, Ahmed M Heiba, Ahmad El Askary, Hend Ibrahim Shousha
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0262348
We aimed to assess the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics associated with mortality among hospitalized Egyptian patients with COVID-19. A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted on all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted through the period from April to July 2020. A generalized linear model was reconstructed with covariates based on predictor's statistical significance and clinically relevance. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated by using stepwise logistic regression modeling. A total of 3712 hospitalized patients were included; of them, 900 deaths were recorded (24.2%). Compared to survived patients, non-survived patients were more likely to be older than 60 years (65.7%), males (53.6%) diabetic (37.6%), hypertensive (37.2%), and had chronic renal insufficiency (9%). Non-survived patients were less likely to receive azithromycin (p <0.001), anticoagulants (p <0.001), and steroids (p <0.001). We found that age � 60 years old (OR = 2.82, 95% CI 2.05-3.86; p <0.0001), diabetes mellitus (
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Late treatment
is less effective
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