Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Effect of chronic hydroxychloroquine use on COVID-19 risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter retrospective cohort

Walbi et al., Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.1177/03000605221090363
Apr 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 421 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective RA/SLE patients in Saudi Arabia. Numbers in this paper are contradictory. Figure 1 and the introduction to the results indicate 304 HCQ users, while Table 1 and later in the results shows 207 (arms switched). The subsequent text reporting the ICU results (2 non-HCQ-users, zero HCQ users) suggests that the labels are switched in Figure 2, or possibly just specific results.
This study is excluded in meta analysis: unresolved data inconsistency.
Walbi et al., 6 Apr 2022, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 16 authors, study period March 2020 - February 2021.
This PaperHCQAll
Effect of chronic hydroxychloroquine use on COVID-19 risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter retrospective cohort
Ismail A Walbi, Hassan A Albarqi, Nayef Saleh Alghanim, Marzooq Abdullah Albadi, Hesham Mohammed Al Maimouni, Saad Ahmed Alkahtani, Ali Mohamed Alshabi, Amer S Alali, Faleh Alqahtani, Amal Hassan Al-Najjar, Mohammad A Hazzazi, Deemah S Alanazi, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz Sabei, Omer S Alsaweed, Rahaf K Alajra, Hussain Alqhtani
Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.1177/03000605221090363
Objective: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of its reported anti-viral activity. This study examined the association of chronic HCQ use with the incidence and complications of COVID-19. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adults with rheumatoid arthritis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus who visited rheumatology clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2019 and December 2020. Patients were categorized into two groups based on HCQ use. Data were obtained from the electronic health record and by interviews with patients. The primary study objective was the incidence of COVID-19 and its complications from March 2020 to February 2021. Results: Almost 11% of the study cohort was positive for COVID-19, and the incidence of COVID-19 was similar between HCQ users (11.11%) and nonusers (10.86%). Disease complication rates were similar in the study arms, and they mainly included fever, dry cough, fatigue, and breathing difficulty. Conclusions: This study revealed no significant association between chronic HCQ use and the incidence of COVID-19, and disease complications were similar in the study arms.
Declaration of competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Author contributions IAW, HA, and HAA participated in the design of the study. IAW, HA, HAA, SAA, AMA, NSA, MAA, HMA, AHA, FA, and MAH prepared the methodology. IAW, ASA, NSA, MAA, HMA, AHA, and MAH supervised the project. IAW, HAA, and HA wrote the original draft. DSA, AAS, OSA, and RKA collected data. SAA, AMA, DSA, AAS, ASA, and FA reviewed and edited the writing. HA and IAW conducted the formal analysis. HA performed the statistical analysis. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
Al-Rawi, Meggitt, Williams, Steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus, Lupus
Alexander, Armstrong, Davenport, A rational roadmap for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pharmacotherapeutic research and development: IUPHAR review 29, British journal of pharmacology
Deng, Zhou, Heybati, Efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis, Future Virol
Derendorf, Excessive lysosomal iontrapping of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Dyall, Gross, Kindrachuk, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Current Therapeutic Options and Potential Targets for Novel Therapies, Drugs
Edington, Rezende, Santos, Efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in the prevention of thromboembolic events: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Lupus
Elm, Altman, Egger, The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies, Ann Intern Med
Esposito, Noviello, Pagliano, Update on treatment of COVID-19: ongoing studies between promising and disappointing results, Infez Med
Fantini, Chahinian, Yahi, Synergistic antiviral effect of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in combination against SARS-CoV-2: What molecular dynamics studies of virus-host interactions reveal, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Fantini, Scala, Chahinian, Structural and molecular modelling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Favalli, Monti, Ingegnoli, Incidence of COVID-19 in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases Treated With Targeted Immunosuppressive Drugs: What Can We Learn From Observational Data?, Arthritis Rheumatol
Ferreira, Oliveira, Bettencourt, Chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection, J Med Virol
Fiolet, Guihur, Rebeaud, Effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Clin Microbiol Infect
Fox, Mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine as an antirheumatic drug, Semin Arthritis Rheum
Gao, Tian, Yang, Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies, Biosci Trends
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an openlabel non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Jirjees, Saad, Hano, COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines: Do They Really Reflect Best Medical Practices to Manage the Pandemic?, Infect Dis Rep
Jung, Kim, Kim, Effect of hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure on infection with SARS-CoV-2 in rheumatic disease patients: a population-based cohort study, Clin Microbiol Infect
Lee, Rayner, Forrest, The rise and fall of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19, Am J Trop Med Hyg
Li, Wang, Agostinis, Is hydroxychloroquine beneficial for COVID-19 patients?, Cell Death Dis
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Machiels, Bleeker-Rovers, Heine, Reply to Gautret et al: hydroxychloroquine sulfate and azithromycin for COVID-19: what is the evidence and what are the risks?, Int J Antimicrob Agents
Mollaeian, Kim, Haas, COVID-19 Prevalence and Outcomes among Individuals with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Taking Hydroxychloroquine
Pileggi, Ferreira, Reis, Chronic use of hydroxychloroquine did not protect against COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with rheumatic diseases in Brazil, Adv Rheumatol
Rainsford, Parke, Clifford-Rashotte, Therapy and pharmacological properties of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases, Inflammopharmacology
Rentsch, Devito, Mackenna, Effect of pre-exposure use of hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19 mortality: a population-based cohort study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus using the Open SAFELY platform, Lancet Rheumatol
Savarino, Trani, Donatelli, New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine, Lancet Infect Dis
Schrezenmeier, Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology, Nat Rev Rheumatol
Silva, Boyd, Wallwork, Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rheumatic disease: a comparative cohort study from a US 'hot spot', Ann Rheum Dis
Trefond, Drumez, Andre, Impact of hydroxychloroquine used as DMARD on SARS CoV-2 tests and infection evolution in a population of 871 patients with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases, Joint bone spine
Tregoning, Flight, Higham, Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape, Nat Rev Immunol
Yao, Ye, Zhang, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop