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Recent:   

Pathological Features and Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brain and Potential Therapeutic Approaches

Sodagar et al., Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom12070971
Jul 2022  
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Review of the pathological features, neuroinflammatory mechanisms, and potential therapeutic approaches for SARS-CoV-2 in the brain. The review discusses the neuro-invasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 and possible entry routes into the brain, including neural pathways (olfactory or vagal) and hematogenous pathways (crossing the blood-brain barrier). The olfactory pathway is believed to be the primary entry route for SARS-CoV-2 into the brain. Spike proteins are identified as the key structural component of the virus that promotes infection in brain cells by binding to the ACE2 receptor. Authors note that the olfactory bulb, thalamus, and brain stem are intensely infected through trans-synaptic transfer of the virus, triggering the release of chemokines, cytokines, and inflammatory signals that infect astrocytes and cause neuroinflammation and neuron death.
Sodagar et al., 11 Jul 2022, peer-reviewed, 12 authors. Contact: abuhuzaifavirk@gmail.com (corresponding author), aishasodagar17@gmail.com, rasabjaved9@gmail.com, hiratahir14166@gmail.com, saifulizwan@utm.my, shakirkhan1418@gmail.com, naeemsaleem413@gmail.com, halimy@utm.my, drsureshnano@gmail.com, jalaluddinamin@gmail.com, abu.9093270@talmeez.pk, ajmalkhan@unizwa.edu.om, aharrasi@unizwa.edu.om.
This PaperMiscellaneousAll
Pathological Features and Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brain and Potential Therapeutic Approaches
Aisha Sodagar, Rasab Javed, Hira Tahir, Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, Muhammad Shakir, Muhammad Naeem, Abdul Halim Abdul Yusof, Suresh Sagadevan, Abu Hazafa, Jalal Uddin, Ajmal Khan, Ahmed Al-Harrasi
Biomolecules, doi:10.3390/biom12070971
The number of deaths has been increased due to COVID-19 infections and uncertain neurological complications associated with the central nervous system. Post-infections and neurological manifestations in neuronal tissues caused by COVID-19 are still unknown and there is a need to explore how brainstorming promoted congenital impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. SARS-CoV-2 neuro-invasion studies in vivo are still rare, despite the fact that other beta-coronaviruses have shown similar properties. Neural (olfactory or vagal) and hematogenous (crossing the bloodbrain barrier) pathways have been hypothesized in light of new evidence showing the existence of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry receptors into the specific components of human nerve and vascular tissue. Spike proteins are the primary key and structural component of the COVID-19 that promotes the infection into brain cells. Neurological manifestations and serious neurodegeneration occur through the binding of spike proteins to ACE2 receptor. The emerging evidence reported that, due to the high rate in the immediate wake of viral infection, the olfactory bulb, thalamus, and brain stem are intensely infected through a trans-synaptic transfer of the virus. It also instructs the release of chemokines, cytokines, and inflammatory signals immensely to the blood-brain barrier and infects the astrocytes, which causes neuroinflammation and neuron death; and this induction of excessive inflammation and immune response developed in more neurodegeneration complications. The present review revealed the pathophysiological effects, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of possible entry routes into the brain, pathogenicity of autoantibodies and emerging immunotherapies against COVID-19.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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SARS-CoV-2 neuro-invasion studies in vivo are still rare, despite the ' 'fact that other beta-coronaviruses have shown similar properties. Neural (olfactory or vagal) ' 'and hematogenous (crossing the blood–brain barrier) pathways have been hypothesized in light ' 'of new evidence showing the existence of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry receptors into the ' 'specific components of human nerve and vascular tissue. Spike proteins are the primary key ' 'and structural component of the COVID-19 that promotes the infection into brain cells. ' 'Neurological manifestations and serious neurodegeneration occur through the binding of spike ' 'proteins to ACE2 receptor. The emerging evidence reported that, due to the high rate in the ' 'immediate wake of viral infection, the olfactory bulb, thalamus, and brain stem are intensely ' 'infected through a trans-synaptic transfer of the virus. It also instructs the release of ' 'chemokines, cytokines, and inflammatory signals immensely to the blood–brain barrier and ' 'infects the astrocytes, which causes neuroinflammation and neuron death; and this induction ' 'of excessive inflammation and immune response developed in more neurodegeneration ' 'complications. 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