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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 28% Improvement Relative Risk Improvement 26% HCQ for COVID-19  Nachega et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 766 patients in DR Congo Lower mortality (p=0.17) and greater improvement (p=0.13), not sig. c19hcq.org Nachega et al., The American J. Tropi.., Oct 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 in Africa: Early Insights from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Nachega et al., The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1240
Oct 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 422 studies, recognized in 42 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 766 hospitalized patients in DRC showing mortality reduced from 29% to 11%, and improvement at 30 days increased from 65% to 84%.
Mortality cox regression adjusted hazard ratio aHR 0.26, p < 0.001
Risk of no improvement adjusted odds ratio aOR 0.28, p < 0.001
Using marginal structural model analysis these risks became:
Mortality MSM adjusted odds ratio aOR 0.65, p = 0.166
Risk of no improvement MSM adjusted odds ratio aOR = 0.65, p = 0.132
Median age 46, 630 treated with CQ+AZ.
Although the 28% lower mortality is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 25% lower mortality [20‑29%] from meta analysis of the 250 mortality results to date.
risk of death, 27.6% lower, RR 0.72, p = 0.17, treatment 69 of 630 (11.0%), control 28 of 96 (29.2%), NNT 5.5, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of no improvement, 25.8% better, RR 0.74, p = 0.13, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nachega et al., 2 Oct 2020, retrospective, database analysis, DR Congo, peer-reviewed, median age 46.0, 25 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
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Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, ' 'Maryland;'}], 'family': 'Sam-Agudu', 'given': 'Nadia A.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Public Health, Université Moderne de Kinkole, ' 'Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo;'}, { 'name': 'Department of Public Health, Centre Interdisciplinaire de ' 'Recherche en Ethnopharmacologie, Faculty of Medicine, Université ' 'Notre-Dame du Kasayi, Kananga, Democratic Republic of the ' 'Congo;'}], 'family': 'Bongo-Pasi Nswe', 'given': 'Christian', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of ' 'Medicine, University of Kinshasa, National Institute of ' 'Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the ' 'Congo;'}], 'family': 'Mbala-Kingebeni', 'given': 'Placide', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Epidemiological Surveillance Team, COVID-19 Response, Health ' 'Emergencies Program, World Health 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Direction Générale ' 'de Lutte contre la Maladie (DGLM), Ministère de la Santé ' 'Publique et Riposte COVID-19, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of ' 'the Congo;'}], 'family': 'Mbuyi', 'given': 'Gisele M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Direction Surveillance Épidémiologique (DSE), Direction Générale ' 'de Lutte contre la Maladie (DGLM), Ministère de la Santé ' 'Publique et Riposte COVID-19, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of ' 'the Congo;'}], 'family': 'Nsio', 'given': 'Justus M.', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Faculty of Medicine, University of Mbuji-Mayi, Mbuji-Mayi, ' 'Democratic Republic of the Congo;'}], 'family': 'Mukeba Tshialala', 'given': 'Didier', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Public Health, Centre Interdisciplinaire de ' 'Recherche en Ethnopharmacologie, Faculty of Medicine, Université ' 'Notre-Dame du Kasayi, Kananga, Democratic Republic of the ' 'Congo;'}], 'family': 'Tshiasuma Pipo', 'given': 'Michel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of ' 'Medicine, University of Kinshasa, National Institute of ' 'Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the ' 'Congo;'}], 'family': 'Ahuka-Mundeke', 'given': 'Steve', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Medical Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of ' 'Medicine, University of Kinshasa, National Institute of ' 'Biomedical Research (INRB), Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the ' 'Congo;'}], 'family': 'Muyembe-Tamfum', 'given': 'Jean-Jacques', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation, Washington, District ' 'of Columbia;'}], 'family': 'Mofenson', 'given': 'Lynne', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Real World & Advanced Analytics, Cytel, Vancouver, ' 'Canada;'}], 'family': 'Smith', 'given': 'Gerald', 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'article-title': 'Limiting the spread of COVID-19 in Africa: one size mitigation ' 'strategies do not fit all countries', 'author': 'Mehtar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e881', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Glob Health', 'key': 'b4', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0237959', 'article-title': 'Age could be driving variable SARS-CoV-2 epidemic trajectories ' 'worldwide', 'author': 'Ayoub', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e0237959', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One', 'key': 'b5', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa695', 'article-title': 'From easing lockdowns to scaling-up community-based COVID-19 screening, ' 'testing, and contact tracing in Africa–shared approaches, innovations, ' 'and challenges to minimize morbidity and mortality', 'author': 'Nachega', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'ciaa695', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': 'b6', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'Hale', 'key': 'b7', 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'Horby', 'key': 'b37', 'volume-title': 'No Clinical Benefit from Use of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalised ' 'Patients with COVID-19', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2019014', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate ' 'COVID-19', 'author': 'Cavalcanti', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': 'b38', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'Williamson', 'key': 'b39', 'volume-title': 'OpenSAFELY: Factors Associated with COVID-19-related Hospital Death in ' 'the Linked Electronic Health Records of 17 Million Adult NHS Patients', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa1198', 'article-title': 'HIV and risk of COVID-19 death: a population cohort study from the ' 'western Cape province, South Africa', 'author': 'Boulle', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': 'b40', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1467', 'article-title': 'Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection ' 'in children and adolescents: a systematic review', 'author': 'Castagnoli', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Pediatr', 'key': 'b41', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2021680', 'article-title': 'Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in U.S. children and adolescents', 'author': 'Feldstein', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '334', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': 'b42', 'volume': '383', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa556', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): what do we know about children? A systematic ' 'review', 'author': 'Mehta', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'ciaa556', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': 'b43', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30272-8', 'article-title': 'Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in South Africa', 'author': 'Webb', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e38', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Child Adolesc Health', 'key': 'b44', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2020'}], 'reference-count': 44, 'references-count': 44, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://ajtmh.org/doi/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1240'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Virology', 'Infectious Diseases', 'Parasitology'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 in Africa: Early ' 'Insights from the Democratic Republic of the Congo', 'type': 'journal-article', 'volume': '103'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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