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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality, HCQ, outpatients 59% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, HCQ+AZ, outp.. 71% Mortality, HCQ, inpatients 41% Mortality, HCQ+AZ, inpa.. 45% Million et al. HCQ for COVID-19 EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in France (March 2020 - December 2021) Lower mortality with HCQ (p=0.0083) Million et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.03.23287649 Favors HCQ Favors control

Early Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Real-Life Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study of 30,423 COVID-19 Patients

Million et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.03.23287649 (Preprint)
Million et al., Early Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Real-Life Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study.., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2023.04.03.23287649 (Preprint)
Apr 2023   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 30,423 patients in France, showing very low mortality overall for outpatients treated with HCQ+AZ and for patients <50, and significantly lower mortality with HCQ and HCQ+AZ versus other treatments. Efficacy was greater for outpatients vs. inpatients.
risk of death, 59.0% lower, OR 0.41, p = 0.008, HCQ, outpatients, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 71.0% lower, OR 0.29, p < 0.001, HCQ+AZ, outpatients, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 41.0% lower, OR 0.59, p < 0.001, HCQ, inpatients, RR approximated with OR.
risk of death, 45.0% lower, OR 0.55, p < 0.001, HCQ+AZ, inpatients, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Million et al., 4 Apr 2023, retrospective, France, preprint, 17 authors, study period 2 March, 2020 - 31 December, 2021.
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This PaperHCQAll
Early Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine and Azithromycin: A Real-Life Monocentric Retrospective Cohort Study of 30,423 COVID-19 Patients
Matthieu Million, Sebastien Cortaredona, Lea Delorme, Philippe Colson, Anthony Levasseur, Herve Tissot-Dupont, Karim Bendamardji, Salima Lahouel, Bernard La Scola, Laurence Camoin, Florence Fenollar, Philippe Gautret, Philippe Parola, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Stephanie Gentile, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult
Objective To estimate the comparative effectiveness of combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)related death based on a large monocentric cohort independent of investigators' putative biases in a real-world setting. Design Retrospective monocentric cohort study, with comprehensive data collection authenticated by an external bailiff and death reports from a national database (French National Death Registry).
Conflicts of interest All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form (available on request from the corresponding author). DR declare grants or contracts and royalties or licenses from Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. DR is scientific board member of Eurofins company. DR is founder and shareholder of a microbial culture company (Culture Top), two biotechnology companies (Techno-jouvence, and Gene and Green TK), and a rapid diagnosis of infectious diseases company (Pocramé). All authors declare: no support from any organisation for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years, no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. Our group used widely available generic drugs distributed by many pharmaceutical companies. Details of contributors .
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