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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19

Meo et al., Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2020, 24 (8), 4539-4547, doi:10.26355/eurrev_202004_21038
Apr 2020  
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HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Analysis of COVID-19 and malaria, finding that COVID-19 is highly pandemic in countries where malaria is least pandemic, and vice versa, suggesting that CQ/HCQ (widely used for malaria) are protective for COVID-19. This paper also includes a review of 9 articles supporting the efficacy of HCQ and CQ.
Meo et al., 30 Apr 2020, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
{ 'type': 'article-journal', 'language': 'eng', 'author': [ {'family': 'Meo', 'given': 'S.A.'}, {'family': 'Klonoff', 'given': 'D.C.'}, {'family': 'Akram', 'given': 'J.'}], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 4]]}, 'abstract': 'OBJECTIVE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also ' 'called COVID-19, has caused a pandemic which has swiftly involved the entire world and raised ' 'great public health concerns. The scientific community is actively exploring treatments that ' 'would potentially be effective in combating COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine has been ' 'demonstrated to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus in vitro. In malarial pandemic ' 'countries, chloroquine is widely used to treat malaria. In malarial non-pandemic nations, ' 'chloroquine is not widely used. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine share similar chemical ' 'structures and mechanisms of action. The aim of this study was to indirectly investigate the ' 'efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 by determining ' 'the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria pandemic and non-pandemic nations. We sought evidence ' 'to support or refute the hypothesis that these drugs could show efficacy in the treatment of ' 'COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed in vitro studies, in vivo studies, original ' 'studies, clinical trials, and consensus reports, that were conducted to evaluate the ' 'antiviral activities of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. The studies on “COVID-19 and its ' 'allied treatment were found from World Health Organization (WHO), ISI-Web of Science, PubMed, ' 'EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and clinical trial registries. The search was based on ' 'keywords: antiviral drugs, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, COVID-19, COVID-19 treatment ' 'modalities, and coronavirus. In addition, we analyzed the prevalence of COVID-19 in malaria ' 'pandemic and non-pandemic countries. The review and analyses were performed on March 28, ' '2020. RESULTS: For this study, we identified a total of 09 published articles: 03 clinical ' 'trials with sample size 150; 03 in vitro studies and 03 expert consensus reports. These ' 'studies were all suggestive that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can successfully treat ' 'COVID-19 infections. We found that COVID-19 infections are highly pandemic in countries where ' 'malaria is least pandemic and are least pandemic in nations where malaria is highly pandemic. ' 'CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have antiviral characteristics in vitro. The ' 'findings support the hypothesis that these drugs have efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. ' 'People are currently using these drugs for malaria. It is reasonable, given the hypothetical ' 'benefit of these two drugs, that they are now being tested in clinical trials to assess their ' 'effectiveness to combat this global health crisis.', 'container-title': 'European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences', 'DOI': '10.26355/eurrev_202004_21038', 'ISSN': '1128-3602, 2284-0729', 'issue': '8', 'medium': 'JB', 'page': '4539-4547', 'page-first': '4539', 'publisher': 'Verduci Editore s.r.l.', 'publisher-place': 'IT', 'title': 'Efficacy of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19', 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202004_21038', 'volume': '24'}
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