Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -134% Improvement Relative Risk HCQ for COVID-19  Kuderer et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with HCQ beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 928 patients in the USA Higher mortality with HCQ (p=0.0000014) Kuderer et al., Lancet, June 20, 2020, May 2020 Favors HCQ Favors control

Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study

Kuderer et al., Lancet, June 20, 2020, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9 (date from preprint)
May 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 928 cancer patients, showing HCQ OR 1.06 [0.51-2.20]. HCQ+AZ OR 2.93 [1.79-4.79]. The relative risks of different therapies suggest that the results are overly affected by confounding by indication. Authors note: HCQ+AZ might not be the cause of increased mortality, but instead these were given to patients with more severe COVID-19. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
risk of death, 134.2% higher, RR 2.34, p < 0.001, treatment 45 of 181 (24.9%), control 76 of 747 (10.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, HCQ+AZ.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kuderer et al., 28 May 2020, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 73 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperHCQAll
Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study
Nicole M Kuderer, MD Toni K Choueiri, Dimpy P Shah, PhD Yu Shyr, MD Samuel M Rubinstein, Donna R Rivera, Sanjay Shete, Chih-Yuan Hsu, MD Aakash Desai, Gilberto De Lima Lopes, MD Petros Grivas, Corrie A Painter, Solange Peters, Michael A Thompson, MD Ziad Bakouny, MD, A Elkrief MD Gerald Batist, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Mehmet A Bilen, Nathaniel Bouganim, MD Mateo Bover Larroya, MD Daniel Castellano, Salvatore A Del Prete, MD, M D Galsky MD Deborah B Doroshow, Pamela C Egan, Arielle Elkrief, Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Daniel Flora, Matthew D Galsky, MD Michael J Glover, Elizabeth A Griffiths, Anthony P Gulati, MD Shilpa Gupta, Navid Hafez, MD Thorvardur R Halfdanarson, Jessica E Hawley, MD Emily Hsu, MD Anup Kasi, MD Ali R Khaki, MD Christopher A Lemmon, Colleen Lewis, Barbara Logan, Tyler Masters, MD Rana R Mckay, MD Ruben A Mesa, MD Alicia K Morgans, MD Mary F Mulcahy, Orestis A Panagiotou, MD Prakash Peddi, Nathan A Pennell, MD Kerry Reynolds, MD Lane R Rosen, MD Rachel Rosovsky, Mary Salazar, Sumit A Shah Andrew Schmidt, Sumit A Shah, MD Justin A Shaya, John Steinharter, Keith E Stockerl-Goldstein, Suki Subbiah, Donald C Vinh, Firas H Wehbe, Lisa B Weissmann, Julie Tsu-Yu Wu, Elizabeth Wulff-Burchfield, MD Zhuoer Xie, Albert Yeh, MD Peter P Yu, Alice Y Zhou, Leyre Zubiri, PhD, B I Rini Sanjay Mishra, MD Gary H Lyman, Brian I Rini, MD Jeremy L Warner, Maheen Abidi, Jared D Acoba, Neeraj Agarwal, Syed Ahmad, Archana Ajmera, Jessica Altman, Anne H Angevine, Nilo Azad, Michael H Bar, Aditya Bardia, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Briana Barrow, Babar Bashir, Rimma Belenkaya, Stephanie Berg, Eric H Bernicker, Christine Bestvina, Rohit Bishnoi, Genevieve Boland, Mark Bonnen, Gabrielle Bouchard, Daniel W Bowles, Fiona Busser, Angelo Cabal, Paolo Caimi, Theresa Carducci, Carla Casulo, James L Chen, Jessica M Clement, David Chism, Erin Cook, Catherine Curran, Ahmad Daher, Mark Dailey, Saurabh Dahiya, John Deeken, George D Demetri, Sandy Dilullo, Narjust Duma, Rawad Elias, Bryan Faller, Leslie A Fecher, Lawrence E Feldman, Christopher R Friese, Paul Fu, Julie Fu, Andy Futreal, Justin Gainor, Jorge Garcia, David M Gill, Erin A Gillaspie, Antonio Giordano, (mary) Grace Glace, Axel Grothey, Shuchi Gulati, Michael Gurley, Balazs Halmos, Roy Herbst, Dawn Hershman, Kent Hoskins, Rohit K Jain, Salma Jabbour, Alokkumar Jha, Douglas B Johnson, Monika Joshi, Kaitlin Kelleher, Jordan Kharofa, Hina Khan, Jeanna Knoble, Vadim S Koshkin, Amit A Kulkarni, Philip E Lammers, John C Leighton, Mark A Lewis, Xuanyi Li, Ang Li, K M Steve Lo, Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla, Patricia Lorusso, Clarke A Low, Maryam B Lustberg, Daruka Mahadevan, Abdul-Hai Mansoor, Michelle Marcum, Merry Jennifer Markham, Catherine Handy Marshall, Sandeep H Mashru, Sara Matar, Christopher Mcnair, Shannon Mcweeney, Janice M Mehnert, Alvaro Menendez, Harry Menon, Marcus Messmer, Ryan Monahan, Sarah Mushtaq, Gayathri Nagaraj, Sarah Nagle, Jarushka Naidoo, John M Nakayama, Vikram Narayan, Heather H Nelson, Eneida R Nemecek, Ryan Nguyen, Pier Vitale Nuzzo, Paul E Oberstein, Adam J Olszewski, Susie Owenby, Mary M Pasquinelli, John Philip, Sabitha Prabhakaran, Matthew Puc, Amelie Ramirez, Joerg Rathmann, Sanjay G Revankar, Young Soo Rho, Terence D Rhodes, Robert L Rice, Gregory J Riely, Jonathan Riess, Cameron Rink, Elizabeth V Robilotti, Lori Rosenstein, Bertrand Routy, Marc A Rovito, M Wasif Saif, Amit Sanyal, Lidia Schapira, Candice Schwartz, Oscar Serrano, Mansi Shah, Chintan Shah, Grace Shaw, Ardaman Shergill, Geoffrey Shouse, Heloisa P Soares, Carmen C Solorzano, Pramod K Srivastava, Karen Stauffer, Daniel G Stover, Jamie Stratton, Catherine Stratton, Vivek Subbiah, Rulla Tamimi, Nizar M Tannir, Umit Topaloglu, Eli Van Allen, Susan Van Loon, Karen Vega-Luna, Neeta Venepalli, Amit K Verma, Praveen Vikas, Sarah Wall, Paul L Weinstein, Matthias Weiss, Trisha Wise-Draper, William A Wood, Wenxin (vincent) Xu, Susan Yackzan, Rosemary Zacks, Tian Zhang, Andrea J Zimmer, Jack West
The Lancet, doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31187-9
Background Data on patients with COVID-19 who have cancer are lacking. Here we characterise the outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer and COVID-19 and identify potential prognostic factors for mortality and severe illness. Methods In this cohort study, we collected de-identified data on patients with active or previous malignancy, aged 18 years and older, with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection from the USA, Canada, and Spain from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) database for whom baseline data were added between March 17 and April 16, 2020. We collected data on baseline clinical conditions, medications, cancer diagnosis and treatment, and COVID-19 disease course. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality within 30 days of diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed the association between the outcome and potential prognostic variables using logistic regression analyses, partially adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and obesity. This study is registered with, NCT04354701, and is ongoing. Findings Of 1035 records entered into the CCC19 database during the study period, 928 patients met inclusion criteria for our analysis. Median age was 66 years (IQR 57-76), 279 (30%) were aged 75 years or older, and 468 (50%) patients were male. The most prevalent malignancies were breast (191 [21%]) and prostate (152 [16%]). 366 (39%) patients were on active anticancer treatment, and 396 (43%) had active (measurable) cancer. At analysis (May 7, 2020), 121 (13%) patients had died. In logistic regression analysis, independent factors associated with increased 30-day mortality, after partial adjustment, were: increased age (per 10 years; partially adjusted odds ratio 1•84, 95% CI 1•53-2•21), male sex (1•63, 1•07-2•48), smoking status (former smoker vs never smoked: 1•60, 1•03-2•47), number of comorbidities (two vs none: 4•50, 1•33-15•28), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or higher (status of 2 vs 0 or 1: 3•89, 2•11-7•18), active cancer (progressing vs remission: 5•20, 2•77-9•77), and receipt of azithromycin plus hydroxychloroquine (vs treatment with neither: 2•93, 1•79-4•79; confounding by indication cannot be excluded). Compared with residence in the US-Northeast, residence in Canada (0•24, 0•07-0•84) or the US-Midwest (0•50, 0•28-0•90) were associated with decreased 30-day all-cause mortality. Race and ethnicity, obesity status, cancer type, type of anticancer therapy, and recent surgery were not associated with mortality. Interpretation Among patients with cancer and COVID-19, 30-day all-cause mortality was high and associated with general risk factors and risk factors unique to patients with cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to better understand the effect of COVID-19 on outcomes in patients with cancer, including the ability to continue specific cancer treatments.
from Incyte, CTI Biopharma, AbbVie, and Celgene; and personal fees from Genentech, Novartis, Sierra Oncology, Samus, and La Jolla outside of the submitted work. AKM reports honoraria from Genentech, Janssen, Sanofi, AstraZeneca, Astellas Scientific, Medical Affairs, Astellas Colombia, Janssen Oncology, and Bayer; consulting or advisory roles with Genentech, AstraZeneca, Sanofi, Bayer, Astellas Pharma, Janssen, Advanced Accelerator Applications, and Myovant Sciences; research funding from Bayer, Seattle Genetics/Astellas, Genentech, AstraZeneca, Astellas Scientific, and Medical Affairs; and travel, accommodations, and expenses from Sanofi. OAP reports a grant from the National Cancer Institute (UG1 CA189828) for the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program and Cancer Care Delivery Research. NAP reports personal fees from Eli Lilly, Merck, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, AstraZeneca, Inivata, and Regeneron outside of the submitted work. LRR reports owning stock or other ownership in Ion Beam Applications and Gilead, and having been in speakers' bureau in Ion Beam Applications. RR reports research grants to her institution from Bristol-Myers Squibb and Janssen and has worked as a consultant or advisor for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, Portola, and Dova outside of the submitted work. RR reports a Massachusetts General Hospital grant from Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica (Spanish Society of Medical Oncology) for a 2-year..
Afar, Vivanco, Hubert, Catalytic cleavage of the androgen-regulated TMPRSS2 protease results in its secretion by prostate and prostate cancer epithelia, Cancer Res
Alexander, Shin, Hwang, Inflammatory diseases of the lung induced by conventional cigarette smoke: a review, Chest
Bleicher, Ruth, Sigurdson, Time to surgery and breast cancer survival in the United States, JAMA Oncol
Cai, Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19, Lancet Respir Med
Cdc, COVID-19 Response Team. Characteristics of health care personnel with COVID-19 -United States, February 12, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
Gautret, Lagier, Parola, Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949
Hoffmann, Kleine-Weber, Schroeder, SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor, Cell
Ksiazek, Erdman, Goldsmith, A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome, N Engl J Med
Lin, Ferguson, White, Prostate-localized and androgenregulated expression of the membrane-bound serine protease TMPRSS2, Cancer Res
Macarulla, Pazo-Cid, Guillén-Ponce, Phase I/II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer and an ECOG performance status of 2, J Clin Oncol
Magagnoli, Narendran, Pereira, Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with COVID-19, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.16.20065920
Marron, Joffe, Jagsi, Spence, Hlubocky, Ethics and resource scarcity: ASCO recommendations for the oncology community during the COVID-19 pandemic, J Clin Oncol, doi:10.1200/JCO.20.00960
Rosenbaum, Facing Covid-19 in Italy -ethics, logistics, and therapeutics on the epidemic's front line, N Engl J Med
Samson, Patel, Garrett, Effects of delayed surgical resection on short-term and long-term outcomes in clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer, Ann Thorac Surg
Smith, Sheltzer, Cigarette smoke triggers the expansion of a subpopulation of respiratory epithelial cells that express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.28.013672
Stopsack, Mucci, Antonarakis, Nelson, Kantoff, TMPRSS2 and COVID-19: serendipity or opportunity for intervention?, Cancer Discov, doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0451
Strzelak, Ratajczak, Adamiec, Feleszko, Tobacco smoke induces and alters immune responses in the lung triggering inflammation, allergy, asthma and other lung diseases: a mechanistic review, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Therapeutics, Spring, Spectrum, Squibb, Janssen ; Astrazeneca et al., past chairman of the Kidney Cancer Association Medical and Scientific Steering Committee and KidneyCan Advisory board, and is Kidney cancer Research Summit co-chair (2019-present); and has patents, royalties, and other intellectual properties in International Patent Application number PCT/US2018/12209, entitled "PBRM1 Biomarkers Predictive of Anti-Immune Checkpoint Response
Vaduganathan, Vardeny, Michel, Mcmurray, Pfeffer et al., Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in patients with COVID-19, N Engl J Med
Vardavas, Nikitara, COVID-19 and smoking: a systematic review of the evidence, Tob Induc Dis
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop