Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

The Use of Antiviral Agents against SARS-CoV-2: Ineffective or Time and Age Dependent Result? A Retrospective, Observational Study among COVID-19 Older Adults

Desai et al., J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10040686
Feb 2021  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
Retrospective 143 COVID-19 hospitalized patients >65yo, showing adjusted OR for antiviral treatment starting within 6 days of 0.44 [0.2-0.9], p = 0.02, compared to treatment started later.
Desai et al., 10 Feb 2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Vitamin K & D Deficiencies Are Independently Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Ankita P Desai, Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Jared C Durieux, Heather Tribout, Danielle Labbato, MD Grace A Mccomsey
Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab408
Background. We investigated the association of vitamin K and vitamin D with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Methods. Levels of inactive vitamin K-dependent dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP; marker of vitamin K status) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D; vitamin D status) were measured in plasma samples from participants with confirmed acute COVID-19 and were age-and sex-matched to healthy controls. Unadjusted odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% CIs were computed using cumulative logistic regression. Results. One hundred fifty subjects were included, 100 COVID-19+ and 50 controls. The median age (interquartile range) was 55 (48-63) years, and 50% were females. Thirty-four percent had mild COVID-19 disease, 51% moderate disease, and 15% severe. Dp-ucMGP levels were higher (ie, worse K status) in COVID-19+ vs controls (776.5 ng/mL vs 549.8 ng/mL; P < .0001) with similar 25(OH)D between groups (25.8 vs 21.9 ng/mL; P = .09). Participants who were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) had the worse vitamin K status (dp-ucMGP >780 ng/mL) and experienced the most severe COVID-19 outcomes. In adjusted models, every 1-unit increase in the log2 dp-ucMGP nearly doubled the odds of acute critical disease or death (AOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.01-3.45), and every 1-unit decrease in the natural log 25(OH)D was associated with >3 times the likelihood of severe COVID-19 disease (AOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.67). Conclusions. Early in acute COVID-19, both vitamin K and vitamin D deficiency were independently associated with worse COVID-19 disease severity, suggesting a potential synergistic interplay between these 2 vitamins in COVID-19.
Supplementary Data Supplementary materials are available at Open Forum Infectious Diseases online. Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit the reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author.
Anastasi, Ialongo, Labriola, Vitamin K deficiency and COVID-19, Scand J Clin Lab Invest
Dofferhoff, Piscaer, Schurgers, Reduced vitamin K status as a potentially modifiable risk factor of severe COVID-19, Clin Infect Dis
Eckard, 'riordan, Rosebush, Vitamin D supplementation decreases immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1-infected youth, Antivir Ther
Fain, Kapuku, Paulson, Inactive matrix Gla protein, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in African American hemodialysis patients, Am J Hypertens
Holick, Vitamin D deficiency, N Engl J Med
Jamilloux, Henry, Belot, Should we stimulate or suppress immune responses in COVID-19? Cytokine and anti-cytokine interventions, Autoimmun Rev
Jespersen, Møllehave, Thuesen, Uncarboxylated matrix Glaprotein: a biomarker of vitamin K status and cardiovascular risk, Clin Biochem
Liu, Zhang, Xu, The anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D in tumorigenesis, Int J Mol Sci
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Association of vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results, JAMA Netw Open
Ohsaki, Shirakawa, Hiwatashi, Vitamin K suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the rat, Biosci Biotechnol Biochem
Ohsaki, Shirakawa, Miura, Vitamin K suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in cultured macrophage-like cells via the inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor κB through the repression of IKKα/β phosphorylation, J Nutr Biochem
Ozaki, Zhang, Mizuta, Menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analogue, inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth by suppressing cyclin D1 expression through inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB activation, Clin Cancer Res
Pan, Maresz, Lee, Inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β by pretreatment of human monocyte-derived macrophages with menaquinone-7 and cell activation with TLR agonists in vitro, J Med Food
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity, Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)
Piscaer, Van Den Ouweland, Vermeersch, Low vitamin K status is associated with increased elastin degradation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, J Clin Med
Prietl, Treiber, Pieber, Amrein, Vitamin D and immune function, Nutrients
Reddi, Henderson, Meghji, Interleukin 6 production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human fibroblasts is potently inhibited by naphthoquinone (vitamin K) compounds, Cytokine
Schurgers, Vermeer, Differential lipoprotein transport pathways of K-vitamins in healthy subjects, Biochim Biophys Acta
Shen, Bimali, Faramawi, Orloff, Consumption of vitamin K and vitamin A are associated with reduced risk of developing emphysema: NHANES 2007-2016, Front Nutr
Simes, Viegas, Araujo, Marreiros, Vitamin K as a diet supplement with impact in human health: current evidence in age-related diseases, Nutrients
Suleiman, Négrier, Boukerche, Protein S: a multifunctional anticoagulant vitamin K-dependent protein at the crossroads of coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol
Van Ballegooijen, Beulens, Kieneker, Combined low vitamin D and K status amplifies mortality risk: a prospective study, Eur J Nutr
Wiersinga, Rhodes, Cheng, Pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review, JAMA
Xia, Matsuhashi, Hamajima, The role of PKC isoforms in the inhibition of NF-κB activation by vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, J Nutr Biochem
Yancy, COVID-19 and African Americans, JAMA
Zabetakis, Lordan, Norton, Tsoupras, COVID-19: the inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential mitigation, Nutrients
Zhang, Lee, Ang, Risk factors for severe disease and efficacy of treatment in patients infected with COVID-19: a systematic review, metaanalysis, and meta-regression analysis, Clin Infect Dis
Zwakenberg, Burgess, Sluijs, EPIC-CVD consortium. Circulating phylloquinone, inactive matrix Gla protein and coronary heart disease risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study, Clin Nutr
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-04-01T12:33:09Z', 'timestamp': 1648816389932}, 'reference-count': 47, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '4', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 10]], 'date-time': '2021-02-10T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1612915200000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': ''}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Background: Our aim was to investigate the impact of therapeutics with antiviral ' 'activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mortality of ' 'older adults affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), taking into consideration the ' 'time interval from symptoms onset to drugs administration. Methods: Data from 143 COVID-19 ' 'patients over 65 years of age admitted to the Humanitas Clinical and Research Center ' 'Emergency Department (Milan, Italy) and treated with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or ' 'Darunavir/cobicistat (DVR/c) associated to Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were retrospectively ' 'analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by using a logistic regression model and ' 'survival analysis to assess the role of different predictors of in-hospital mortality, ' 'including an early (&lt;6 days from symptoms onset) vs. late treatment onset, signs and ' 'symptoms at COVID-19 presentation, type of antiviral treatment (LPV/r or DVR/c) and patients’ ' 'age (65–80 vs. &gt;80 years old). Results: Multivariate analysis showed that an older age ' '(OR: 2.54) and dyspnea as presenting symptom (OR: 2.01) were associated with higher mortality ' 'rate, whereas cough as presenting symptom (OR: 0.53) and a timely drug administration (OR: ' '0.44) were associated with lower mortality. Survival analysis demonstrated that the timing of ' 'drug administration had an impact on mortality in 65–80 years-old patients (p = 0.02), ' 'whereas no difference was seen in those &gt;80 years-old. This impact was more evident in ' 'patients with dyspnea as primary symptom of COVID-19, in whom mortality decreased from 57.1% ' 'to 38.3% due to timely drug administration (OR: 0.5; p = 0.04). Conclusions: There was a ' 'significant association between the use of a combined antiviral regimen and HCQ and lower ' 'mortality, when timely-administered, in COVID-19 patients aged 65–80 years. Our findings ' 'support timely treatment onset as a key component in the treatment of COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/jcm10040686', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 12]], 'date-time': '2021-02-12T05:49:26Z', 'timestamp': 1613108966000}, 'page': '686', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 2, 'title': 'The Use of Antiviral Agents against SARS-CoV-2: Ineffective or Time and Age Dependent Result? A ' 'Retrospective, Observational Study among COVID-19 Older Adults', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '10', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Antonio', 'family': 'Desai', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Giuseppe', 'family': 'Caltagirone', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Sharon', 'family': 'Sari', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Daria', 'family': 'Pocaterra', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Maria', 'family': 'Kogan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Elena', 'family': 'Azzolini', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Victor', 'family': 'Savevski', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': '', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Filippo', 'family': 'Martinelli-Boneschi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Antonio', 'family': 'Voza', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '1968', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 10]]}, 'reference': [ {'key': 'ref1'}, {'key': 'ref2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMe2005477'}, {'key': 'ref3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcv.2004.03.003'}, {'key': 'ref4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3349/ymj.2020.61.9.826'}, {'key': 'ref5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41525-020-00143-y'}, {'key': 'ref6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12291-020-00900-x'}, {'key': 'ref7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099'}, {'key': 'ref8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-137785'}, {'key': 'ref9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106080'}, {'key': 'ref10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s13181-020-00777-5'}, {'key': 'ref11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.5483/BMBRep.2020.53.4.080'}, {'key': 'ref12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.09.062'}, {'key': 'ref13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1055/a-1156-3991'}, {'key': 'ref14'}, {'key': 'ref15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2013.281053'}, { 'key': 'ref16', 'unstructured': 'Clinical Management of ' 'COVID-19'}, {'key': 'ref17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/medicina56110572'}, {'key': 'ref18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJM199701233360402'}, {'key': 'ref19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/thorax.58.5.377'}, {'key': 'ref20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ageing/afab026'}, {'key': 'ref21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.010'}, {'key': 'ref22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.healun.2020.03.012'}, {'key': 'ref23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00415-020-10135-8'}, {'key': 'ref24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.inat.2020.100822'}, {'key': 'ref25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/cvr/cvaa106'}, {'key': 'ref26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1164/rccm.202005-1583OC'}, {'key': 'ref27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2020283'}, {'key': 'ref28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/all.14364'}, {'key': 'ref29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001282'}, {'key': 'ref30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.10.15.20209817'}, {'key': 'ref31'}, {'key': 'ref32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ageing/afaa093'}, {'key': 'ref33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0237558'}, {'key': 'ref34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/gerona/59.3.M255'}, {'key': 'ref35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0165939'}, {'key': 'ref36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/sji.12413'}, {'key': 'ref37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02555.x'}, {'key': 'ref38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/alr.22593'}, {'key': 'ref39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/lary.28692'}, {'key': 'ref40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3332/ecancer.2020.ed98'}, {'key': 'ref41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1152/physiol.00019.2020'}, {'key': 'ref42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1172/JCI137647'}, {'key': 'ref43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.18632/aging.103101'}, {'key': 'ref44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9953'}, {'key': 'ref45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9956'}, {'key': 'ref46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9951'}, {'key': 'ref47', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9952'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Clinical Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': '', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 19]], 'date-time': '2021-02-19T02:19:27Z', 'timestamp': 1613701167000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 10]]}, 'references-count': 47, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['jcm10040686'], 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2077-0383'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'JCM', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 10]]}}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop