Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All HCQ studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19hcq.org COVID-19 treatment researchHCQHCQ (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Incidence of COVID-19 in patients under chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine

Cifuentes et al., Medicina Clínica (English Edition), doi:10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012
Jan 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
HCQ for COVID-19
1st treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 411 studies, recognized in 46 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19hcq.org
Retrospective 3,817 chronic HCQ patients showing 4.4% COVID-19 positive rate, 1.3% severe. There is no comparison with a control group. Authors note that there was a 3.6% incidence among 2,032,863 patients in one of the regions (Castilla La Mancha), however they provide no information on this group - it is expected that the mostly systemic autoimmune disease patients in the treatment group are older on average. Additonally, other research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall, Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.0011.
Cifuentes et al., 23 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
This PaperHCQAll
Incidence of COVID-19 in patients under chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine ଝ
Francisco Tejada Cifuentes, Ángeles Lloret Callejo, José Tirado Peláez, Olga Rubio Pulido, Marta Ruiz-Morote, Aragón, Rocío Fernández Urrusuno, Isabel María, Mu Ñoz Carreras, Isabel Méndez, Victoria Maestre Sánchez, Antonio García Bonilla, José Manuel Paredero Dominguez, Virginia Arroyo Pineda, Esther Marco Tejón, Gregorio Romero Candel, Ana Isabel Fernández Marchante, José Marco Del Rio, Teresa Ortiz Martín, Piedad López Sánchez, Tejada Cifuentes, Lloret Callejo, MJ Tirado Peláez, Rubio Pulido, Ruiz-Morote Aragón, Covid-19 Coronavirus, Incidencia Hidroxicloroquina Tratamiento
Objective: To analyze the incidence of Covid-19 in patients who are chronic users of hydroxychloroquine. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional retrospective observational multicenter study in health areas and districts from Castilla La-Mancha and Andalucia. Of the 4451 participants included in the first recruitment, 3817 with valid data were selected. The main variable of the study is the presence or absence of Covid-19 infection by clinical, serological or polymerase chain reaction diagnosis. Sociodemographic and clinical variables and treatment and concomitant comorbidities were recorded. Results: 169 (4,45%) patients had Covid-19 infection, of which 12 (7.1 %) died and 32 (18.9%) required hospital admission. Previous respiratory pathology was related to Covid-19 infection (P < .05). Maculopathy appears in 5.3% of patients and is significantly related to the dose of hydroxychloroquine consumed (P < .05). Conclusion: There is no relationship between chronic use of hydroxychloroquine and the incidence of Covid-19.
Authorship The following people have contributed to the review of the data: Sonia Martínez Cruz, Julia de Fez Herráiz, Adriana Arcega Baraza, María Teresa González Zarca, Carolina Payá Giner, Ángel Fernández Mistal, María Dolores Pérez Pacheco, Macarena Flores Dorado, Piedad Reguera Martínez, Olga Rojas Corrales, María Isabel Ibarra Lorente, María Elena Carretero Albi ñana, María Isabel Tofi ño González, Belén de la Hija Díaz, Beatriz de la Calle Riaguas, Juan José Navarro Agüera, Rosario Lara Olivares, Dolores Caniego Rodrigo, Yolanda González Gero, Inmaculada Casa Hidalgo, Aina Tomás Luiz, Eva María García Martínez, Nuria Monteagudo Martínez, Ismael Pérez Alpuente, Francisco Tomás Pagán Nú ñez, Ana Ramírez Córcoles, Rocío Pardo Sánchez, Palmira Quero González, Rocío Pe ña Pou, Alejandro Rodríguez Delgado, Francisco M. Ferrer Soler y Alejandro Rodríguez Delgado. Conflict of interests The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
References
Abajo, Rodríguez-Martín, Lerma, Mejía-Abril, Aguilar et al., Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital: a case-population study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/PII
Andreani, Bideau, Duflot, Jardot, Rollan et al., In vitro testing of combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on SARS-CoV-2 shows synergistic effect, Microb Pathog, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Aquino, Cabrera, Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: critiquing the impact of disease public profile on policy and clinical decision-making, J Med Ethics
Bhimraj, Morgan, Shumaker, Lavergne, Baden et al., Infectious diseases Society of America guidelines on the treatment and management of patients with COVID-19, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa478
Cavalcanti, Zampieri, Rosa, Azevedo, Veiga et al., Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate COVID-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.7326/M20-2496
Coombes, Markwell, Kubler, Redmond, Mcgurk et al., Principles of ethical prescribing for self and others: hydroxychloroquine in the COVID-19 pandemic, Aust Prescr
Cortegiani, Ingoglia, Ippolito, Giarratno, Einav, A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa478
Fang, Karakiulakis, Roth, Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?, Lancet Respir Med, doi:10.1016/PII
Hernandez, Roman, Pasupuleti, Barboza, White, Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19: a living systematic review, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M20-2496
Juurlink, Safety considerations with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection, CMAJ, doi:10.1503/cmaj.200528
Marmor, Kellner, Lai, Lyons, Mieler, Revised recommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, Ophthalmology, doi:10.3390/ijerph17145171
Poblador-Plou, Carmona-Pírez, Ioakeim-Skoufa, Poncel-Falcó, Bliek-Bueno et al., Baseline chronic comorbidity and mortality in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases: results from the PRE-COVID study in Spain, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph17145171
Roden, Harrington, Poppas, Russo, Considerations for drug interactions on QTc in exploratory COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) treatment, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047521
Singh, Singh, Singh, Misra, Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Diabetes Metab Syn, doi:10.1503/cmaj.200528
Tang, Cao, Han, Wang, Chen et al., Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial, BMJ, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2019014
Wang, Zhang, Du, Du, Zhao et al., Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31030-8
Yao, Ye, Zhang, Cui, Huang et al., In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237
Ye, Wang, Colunga-Lozano, Prasad, Tangamornsuksan et al., Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 based on evidence for COVID-19, other coronavirus infections, influenza, community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis, CMAJ, doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.11.017
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2022-04-05T15:57:07Z', 'timestamp': 1649174227358}, 'reference-count': 22, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'issue': '4', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 1]], 'date-time': '2021-02-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1612137600000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}], 'content-domain': { 'domain': ['elsevier.es', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 23]], 'date-time': '2021-01-23T16:26:56Z', 'timestamp': 1611419216000}, 'page': '166-171', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Incidence of COVID-19 in patients under chronic treatment with hydroxychloroquine', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'volume': '156', 'author': [ {'given': 'Francisco', 'family': 'Tejada Cifuentes', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ángeles', 'family': 'Lloret Callejo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'María José', 'family': 'Tirado Peláez', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Olga', 'family': 'Rubio Pulido', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Marta', 'family': 'Ruiz-Morote Aragón', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Rocío', 'family': 'Fernández Urrusuno', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'María Isabel', 'family': 'Muñoz Carreras', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'María Isabel', 'family': 'Méndez Esteban', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Victoria', 'family': 'Maestre Sánchez', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Antonio', 'family': 'García Bonilla', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'José Manuel', 'family': 'Paredero Dominguez', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Virginia', 'family': 'Arroyo Pineda', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Esther', 'family': 'Marco Tejón', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Gregorio', 'family': 'Romero Candel', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'Ana Isabel', 'family': 'Fernández Marchante', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'José', 'family': 'Marco del Rio', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Teresa', 'family': 'Ortiz Martín', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Piedad', 'family': 'López Sánchez', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '76', 'DOI': '10.18773/austprescr.2020.030', 'article-title': 'Principles of ethical prescribing for self and others: ' 'hydroxychloroquine in the COVID-19 pandemic', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'Coombes', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Aust Prescr'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '574', 'DOI': '10.1136/medethics-2020-106306', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: critiquing the impact of disease ' 'public profile on policy and clinical decision-making', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'Aquino', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'J Med Ethics'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0015', 'article-title': 'Infectious diseases Society of America guidelines on the treatment and ' 'management of patients with COVID-19', 'author': 'Bhimraj', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippolito M, Giarratno A, Einav S. A systematic ' 'review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of ' 'COVID-19. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0025', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa237', 'article-title': 'In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design ' 'of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)', 'author': 'Yao', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0030', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104228', 'article-title': 'In vitro testing of combined hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin on ' 'SARS-CoV-2 shows synergistic effect', 'volume': '145', 'author': 'Andreani', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Microb Pathog'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0035', 'unstructured': 'Drug interaction results for hydroxychloroquine sulfate. Micromedex ' '2020. [Accessed 4 August 2020]. Available from: ' 'https://www.micromedexsolutions.com.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0040', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '906', 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047521', 'article-title': 'Considerations for drug interactions on QTc in exploratory COVID-19 ' '(coronavirus disease 2019) treatment', 'volume': '141', 'author': 'Roden', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Circulation'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0045', 'unstructured': 'COVID-19 treatment guidelines. National Institutes of Health. [Accessed ' '1 September 2020]. Available from: ' 'https://covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/antiviral-therapy/chloroquine-or-hydroxychloroquine/.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E450', 'DOI': '10.1503/cmaj.200528', 'article-title': 'Safety considerations with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and ' 'azithromycin in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection', 'volume': '192', 'author': 'Juurlink', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'CMAJ'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0055', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '589', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.017', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Singh', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Metab Syn'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0060', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '287', 'DOI': '10.7326/M20-2496', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for treatment or prophylaxis of ' 'COVID-19: a living systematic review', 'volume': '173', 'author': 'Hernandez', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0065', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2019014', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin in mild-to-moderate ' 'COVID-19', 'author': 'Cavalcanti', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0070', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'm1849', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1849', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in patients with mainly mild to moderate coronavirus ' 'disease 2019: open label, randomised controlled trial', 'volume': '369', 'author': 'Tang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0075', 'unstructured': 'Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA revokes emergency use authorization ' 'for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. June 15, 2020. Silver Spring ' '(MD): U.S. Food & Drug.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0080', 'unstructured': 'Acute use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for people ' 'with or at risk of COVID-19. National Institute for Health and Care ' 'Excellence (NICE) [en línea] [Accessed 1 November 2020]. Available from: ' 'https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/es23/chapter/Key-messages.'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0085', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e21', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30116-8', 'article-title': 'Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk ' 'for COVID-19 infection?', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Fang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Respir Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0090', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1705', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31030-8', 'article-title': 'Use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of ' 'COVID-19 requiring admission to hospital: a case-population study', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'De Abajo', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0095', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1569', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, ' 'placebo-controlled, multicentre trial', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'Wang', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0100', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '5171', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijerph17145171', 'article-title': 'Baseline chronic comorbidity and mortality in laboratory-confirmed ' 'COVID-19 cases: results from the PRECOVID study in Spain', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'Poblador-Plou', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Int J Environ Res Public Health'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0105', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '415', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.11.017', 'article-title': 'Revised recommendations on screening for chloroquine and ' 'hydroxychloroquine retinopathy', 'volume': '118', 'author': 'Marmor', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'Ophthalmology'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012_bib0110', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1503/cmaj.200645', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in COVID-19 based on evidence ' 'for COVID-19, other coronavirus infections, influenza, ' 'community-acquired pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Ye', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'CMAJ'}], 'container-title': 'Medicina Clínica (English Edition)', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S2387020621000206?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S2387020621000206?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 2, 17]], 'date-time': '2021-02-17T19:36:25Z', 'timestamp': 1613590585000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2387020621000206'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'references-count': 22, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['S2387020621000206'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2387-0206'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'Medicina Clínica (English Edition)', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'Incidence of COVID-19 in patients under chronic treatment with ' 'hydroxychloroquine', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, { 'value': 'Medicina Clínica (English Edition)', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medcle.2020.10.012', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.10.006', 'name': 'associatedlink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to the associated document'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2020 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit